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Exam 3


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a people who invaded central Mexico and were ruled by a military class; had a capital city of Tula; influenced the Maya; introduced the working of gold and silver; spread the worship of their god Quetzalcoatl; destroyed in the AD 1100s
The term neolithic era refers to
the early stages of a cultivating society;the agricultural transition;polished stone tools;permanently in villages
Gothic Architecture
architecture with higher and more graceful buildings; high arch ceilings and tall windows, flying buttresses
ancient Athenian philosopher
Illiad & Odyssey
Homer's poem narrates a dispute between Agamemnon the king and his warrior Achilles, whose honor is wounded and then avenged
King Tut
only pharaoh of Egypt known to still rest in the Valley of the Kings
Yin and Yang
two forces in the universe, according to Chinese Theory: Yin is the passive, negative force, and Yang the active, positive force
Maurya Empire
centralized India; greatest ruler, Ashoka; collapsed because of outside invaders; built road system for trade and defense
Greek city-state
Peloponnesian War
a war in which Athens and its allies were defeated by the league centered on Sparta
Mandate of Heaven
Chinese idea that emperors derived their license to rule from the ancestor/gods and kept it only as long as they ruled justly. (Compare the Euro-Christian concept of the "divine right of kings." )
Great Wall
a long wall that the Chinese built to keep out nomadic tribes from the north and west. It was expanded and rebuilt several times under different dynasties
a church court to judge convict and punish heretics
a belief system that one's soul lives many life times in order to grow and learn.
The main religious and social system in India. Hinduism has various sects with the commonality of the belief in reincarnation, polytheism and an ordained caste system as its social base.
Mexico and Central America
Rosetta Stone
A basalt slab discovered at Rosetta (Rashid), at the western mouth of the Nile, during Napoleon's occupation of Egypt in 1799. It was seized by the victorious British Army and is now in the British Museum. The text is an honorific decree of Ptolemy V (196 B.C.) that was written in ancient Greek, hieroglyphics, and demotic, which is a later form of ancient Egyptian. The stone enabled the French explorer and linguist Champollion to decipher ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics by comparing the unknown text of hieroglyphics to the known and translated text in Greek and demotic.
Julius Ceaser
Military leader, part of 1st Triumvirate, fights in pompey, wins and becomes dictator for life in Rome
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
Joan of Arc
French heroine and military leader inspired by religious visions to organize French resistance to the English and to have Charles VII crowned king
Theme system
527 C.E.
Gupta Empire
Golden Age of India; ruled through central government but allowed village power; restored Hinduism
tall annual cereal grass bearing kernels on large ears: widely cultivated in America in many varieties
islands of central and South Pacific (Indonesia and Melanesia and Micronesia and Polynesia)
Tight military formation of men eight or more ranks deep
Cro-Magnon peoples were
Homo sapiens sapiens.
the everyday speech of the people (as distinguished from literary language)
Pax Romana
the Roman peace
Angkor Wat
a hindu temple in cambodia built by the khmer people
Four Noble Truths
Were discovered by the Buddha through enlightenment. These truths form the basis for a Buddhist worldview: All people suffer from unfulfilled and inappropriate desires, but suffering can be overcome by following the Eightfold Path.
Capital is Babylon;Law Code: law of retribution and importance of social status
5 Pillars
Allah is God. prayer. give to the poor. fasting. pilgrimage to Mecca
Second triumvirate
Octavius, Marc Antony, and Lepidus. Ocatvius took over and Replic was over. entered Pax Romana with Octavius.
the doctrine that the state is supreme over the church in ecclesiastical matters
Hindu general who became king of India
a Chinese philosopher who lived from 551 to 479 BC His teachings are called Confucianism, a system of ethics that was very important in China.
The Republic
a sequence of powerful leaders in the same family
Alexander the Great
successor of Philip of Macedon; 1st global empire, but no lasting bureaucracy; spread of Hellenism is greatest achievement
Civil Service Exam
Confucian exam to acquire a position in the Chinese bureaucracy
the capital and largest city of Greece
Punic Wars
Roman victory over Carthage
A region in the southern part of ancient Mesopotamia. The Sumerians appeared around 5000 B.C.; the civilization was made up of independent walled city-states, and declined around 2350 B.C. with the rise of the Akkadian Empire. Sumerian culture was revived at the very end of the 3rd milenium BC. during the 'Third Dynasty of Ur' after which time the Old Babylonian culture ruled Mesopotamia. However, the Sumerian writing system (cuneiform) was used throughout the Ancient Near East for another 2,000 years.
Homo sapiens were better hunters than Australopithecus and Homo erectus because they
had larger brains and higher intelligence.
Bronze Age
(archeology) a period between the Stone and Iron ages, characterized by the manufacture and use of bronze tools and weapons
Phonecian alphabet
The most significant defining characteristic of the paleolithic era was that
peoples relied on hunting and gathering for subsistence
a form of state political organization in which the government is based on religious offices.
a Japanese warrior who was a member of the feudal military aristocracy
Han Dynasty
imperial dynasty that ruled China (most of the time) from 206 BC to 221 and expanded its boundaries and developed its bureaucracy
Harappa and Mohenjo-daro
two main cities of Indus River Valley
an ancient city state on the north African coast near modern Tunis
Buddhism developed in India, and is based on many of the core concepts of Hinduism. Buddhists believe in an endless cycle of reincarnation, or samsara, which is similar to beliefs of Hinduism. However, Buddhists do not believe that deities are responsible for the phenomenon. In addition, the Caste System is rejected by Buddhists who believe instead that one is reincarnated until they can achieve nirvana, best described as spiritual enlightenment.
A major difference between Homo erectus and Australopithecus was the ability to
communicate through language.
Byzantine Empire
It served as a buffer between the Muslim middle East and the Latin west. It fell to the Ottoman Turks along with the city of Constantinople in 1453.
lower class
The first system of writing in human history, developed in ancient Mesopotamia, which used a reed to impress wedge-shaped marks onto the surface of clay tablets.
Hundred Years of War
event during which the longbow and cannon were used for the first time
Mt. Olympus
where gods & goddesses lived
Harrapan Civilization
First civilization of Indian subcontinent; emerged in Indus River valley
Tang Dynasty
Dynasty often referred to as China's Golden age that reigned during 618-907 CE;rebuilt Great Wall
Bayeux Tapestry
A piece of linen about 1 Ft.8 in. Wide by 213 ft.long covered with embroidery representing the incidents of Willam the conqueror's expedition to England, preserved in the town museum of Bayeux in Normandy. It is probably of the 11 th century, and is attributed by tradition to Matilda, the conquerors wife.
Twelve tribes of Isreal
Tribes of Israel: twelve kin groups of ancient Israel each traditionally descended from one of the twelve sons of Jacob
Walked upright on two legs; well-developed hands
First Triumvirate
(60-53 BCE): Caesar, Crassus, Pompey
The process of adopting chinese culture
traditional code of the Japanese samurai which stressed courage and loyalty and self-discipline and simple living
A group of people who made up the ruling class of Rome
a piece of land held under the feudal system
Emperor of Rome who adopted the Christian faith and stopped the persecution of Christians (280-337)
The capital of the eastern Roman Empire and later of the Byzantine Empire
Silk Road
an ancient trade route between China and the Mediterranean (4,000 miles)
(Old Testament) the Hebrew prophet who led the Israelites from Egypt across the Red sea on a journey known as the Exodus
Sui Dynasty
brought China together. Rules 30 years, build Grand Canal (dynasty)
Royal Road
a road in the persian empire, stretching over 1,600 miles from susa in persia to sardis in anatolia
The knightly system of feudal times with its code, usages and practices.
Bantu Migrations
farmers and herders who migrated south and spread language and skills-1000BC - 1000AD, The Bantu expansion was a millenia long series of physical migrations, a diffusion of language and knowledge out into and in from neighboring populations, and a creation of new societal groups involving inter-marriage among communities and small groups moving tocommunities and small groups moving to new areas. Bantu-speakers developed novel methods of agriculture and metalworking which allowed people to colonize new areas with widely varying ecologies in greater densities than hunting and foraging permitted.
King of the Franks who conquered much of Western Europe, great patron of leterature and learning
The family of hominids includes all of the following species except
apes and monkeys.
By scholarly convention, prehistory refers to the period
before the invention of writing.
A system of writing which uses pictures for concepts and ideas.
The famous Lucy was
a Homo erectus.
absolute ruler and owns all land
the idea that everyone would live on the manor and they would divide the work among the proper worker
the worship of many gods.
Human beings and large apes are significantly different in
level of intelligence.
The belief that there is only one God in all places at all times.
Oracle Bones
In ancient China, they were pieces of bone or turtle shell used by Shang priests to tell the future. They would write a question addressed to either one of the gods, or an ancestor on the bone, then heat it until it cracked. They believed that by studying the pattern of cracks, one could learn the answer to the question. Oracle bones are the oldest example of Chinese writing.
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
Cyrus the Great
king of Persia and founder of the Persian empire (circa 600-529 BC)
Silk Road
an ancient trade route between China and the Mediterranean (4,000 miles)
an unbound manuscript of some ancient classic (as distinguished from a scroll)
What was a likely purpose of Cro-Magnon cave painting?
to exercise sympathetic magic.
1096 Christian Europe aim to reclaim Jerusalem and aid they Byzantines; 1st success and the rest a failure; weakens the Byzantines; opens up trade
The effort by Christian leaders to drive the Muslims out of Spain, lasting from the 1100s until 1492.
This emphasized reason as well as faith and the interpretation of Christian doctrine.
Abbasid Dynasty
750-1265: Succeeded Umayyad Dynasty, Baghdad, Persian Influence, Trading, LEARNING
Siddhartha Guatama
aka: Buddha) 560 - 480 BCE. Indian prince who created Buddhism.
a philosophy of life founded by Laozi. It draws on nature as a guide;literally, "way" or "path;" the rhythmic balance and natural, flowing patterns of the universe
Strict or excessive adherence to law or religious or moral code
a political system governed by a few people
a monotheistic system of beliefs and practices based on the Old Testament and the teachings of Jesus as embodied in the New Testament and emphasizing the role of Jesus as savior
Mesopotamia: "the land between the rivers"
Valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates
Roman statesman who established the Roman Empire and became emperor in 27 BC
an ancient Greek city famous for military prowess
Battle of Hastings
the decisive battle in which William the Conqueror (duke of Normandy) defeated the Saxons under Harold II (1066) and thus left England open for the Norman Conquest
First 5 books of the Jewish Bible b. Also refers to the whole of Jewish law c. also common term for a chassidic teaching
Battle of Tours
732, battle that stoppped Muslim invasion
ancient Athenian philosopher
the Greeks sent about 7000 soldiers to gaurd the pass, for two days they held off the Persians but on the 2nd day, a traitor led the persians through a secret pass so they could attack from behind. Most of the Greeks retreated but 300 Spartan soldiers stayed and fought.
Twelve Tables
codification of Roman Law
a person holding a fief
(ancient Rome) a professional combatant or a captive who entertained the public by engaging in mortal combat
Great Schism
separation of Church
A race that originated in Central Asia and later migrated to Europe and India according to European Indologists like Max Mueller. The Aryan migration into India was supposed to have taken place around 1500 BCE. According to this theory the Aryans destroyed the Indus valley civilizations, pushed the Dravidians to the south of India and founded the Vedic culture. This theory is now not accepted by many. The founders of the Vedic civilization are believed to be indigenous to India and not migrants. Arya in Vedic literature means noble and is used as a common term for addressing royalty
ancient Greek epic poet who is believed to have written the Iliad and the Odyssey (circa 850 BC)
one of the greatest of the ancient Athenian philosophers
the doctrine that all natural objects and the universe itself have souls
people who gained power by force
Black Death
the epidemic form of bubonic plague experienced during the Middle Ages when it killed nearly half the people of western Europe
Early West African people who produced iron
Shi Huangdi
first emperor of a unified China in 221 BCE. He ruled until his death in 210 BCE, calling himself the First Emperor (Chinese: 始皇帝; pinyin: Shǐ Huáng Dì; Wade-Giles: Shih Huang-Ti). He was known for the introduction of Legalism and also for unifying China.
Indus River valley
remains inaccessible because of silt deposits and rising water table;writing not yet translated;Runs through north India
Justinian Code
the legal code of ancient Rome
St. Benedict
A man who developed the monastic way of life in Western Europe
the ancient indigenous religion of Japan lacking formal dogma
Cities first emerged from agricultural villages and towns in
the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.
the monotheistic religion of the Jews having its spiritual and ethical principles embodied chiefly in the Torah and in the Talmud
Chinese Writing system
Early Chinese writing, from pictograph to ideograph;
Association of merchants or artisans who cooperated to protect their economic interests
professional oral historians; advisors to the kings

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