# Stats Chap 1 & 2

## Terms

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- Uniform or Rectangular Histogram
- a histogram with the same frequency for all classes
- Class
- an interval that includes all the values in a (quantitative) data set that fall within two numbers, the lower and upper limits of the class
- Inferential Statistics
- collection of methods that help make decisions about a population based on sample results
- Cumulative Relative Frequency
- cumulative frequency of a class divided by the total number of observations
- Class Frequency
- the number of values in a data set that belong to a certain class
- Percentage
- obtained by multiplying the relative frequency of that class or category by 100
- Class Width or Size
- the difference between the two boundaries of a class
- Simple Random Sampling
- if all samples of the same size selected from a population have the same chance of being selected, it is called simple random sampling. Such a sample is called a simple random sample.
- Cumulative Frequency Distribution
- a table that lists the total number of values that fall below the upper boundary of that class
- Cross-section Data
- data collected on different elements at the same point in time or for the same period of time
- Frequency Distribution
- a table that lists all the categories or classes and the number of values that belong to each of those categories or classes
- Class Midpoint
- obtained by dividing the sume of the upper and lower limits (or boundaries) of a class by 2
- Quantitative Variable
- a variable that can be measured numerically
- Relative Frequency
- the frequency of a class or category divided by the sum of all frequencies
- Data Set
- collection of observations or measurements on a variable
- Qualitative or Categorical Variable
- a variable that cannot assume numerical values but is classified into two or more categories
- Bar Graph
- a graph made of bars whose heights represent the frequencies of respective categories
- Statistics
- Group of methods used to collect, analyze, present, and interpret data and to make decisions
- Census
- a survey that includes all members of a population
- Sample Survey
- a survey that includes elements of a sample
- Histogram
- a graph in which classes are marked on the horizontal axis and frequencies, relative frequencies, or percentages are marked on the vertical axis. Bars are adjacent (touching)
- Cumulative Frequency
- the frequency of a class that includes all values in a data set that fall below the upper boudnary of that class
- Representative Sample
- a sample that contains the same characteristics as the corresponding population
- Population or Target Population
- the collection of all elements whose characteristics are being studied
- Pie Chart
- a circle divided into portions that represent the relative frequencies or percentages of different categories or classes
- Outliers or Extreme Values
- values that are very small or very large relative to the majority of values in that data set
- Raw Data
- data recorded in the sequence collected before processing
- Discrete Variable
- a quantitative variable whose values are countable
- Descriptive Statistics
- collection of methods for organizing, displaying, and describing data using tables, graphs, and summary measures
- Element or Member
- a specific subject or object included in a sample or population
- Cumulative Percentage
- cumulative relative frequency multiplied by 100
- Class Boundary
- the midpoint of the upper limit of one class and the lower limit of the next class
- Time-Series Data
- data that give the values of the same variable for the same element at different points in (or for different periods of) time
- Symmetrical Histogram
- a histogram that is identical on both sides of its central point
- Random Sample
- a sample drawn in such a way that each element of a population has some chance of being included in the sample
- Polygon
- a graph formed by joining the midpoints of the tops of successive bars in a histogram by straight lines
- Survey
- collection of data on the elements of a population or sample
- Qualitative or Categorical Data
- data generated by a qualitative variable
- Ogive
- a curve drawn for a cumulative frequency distribution
- Grouped Data
- a data set presented in the form of a frequency distribution
- Variable
- a characteristic under study that assumes different values for different elements