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MIS Midterm Review

MIS definitions

Terms

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Executive Information system
A specialized DSS that supports senior level executives within the organization
Loyalty program
Rewards customers based on the amount of business that they do with a particular organization
Forward integration
Takes information entered into a given system and sends it automatically to all downstream systems and processes
Information-Sharing culture
Employees accross departments trust each other to use information to improve performance
Hierarchical database model
Information is organized into a tree-like structure that allows repeating information using parent/child relationships, in such a way that it cannot have too many relationships
Threat of new entrants
High when it is easy for new competitors to enter a market and low when there are significant barriers to entering a market
Data warehouse
A logical collection of information-gathered from many different operational databases-that supports business analysis activities and decision making
Derived attribute
An attribute that can be calculated using the value of another attribute
Composite entities
Entities that exists to represent the relationship between two other entities
Cardinality
expresses the specific number of entity occurrences associated with one occurrence of the related entity
Expert System
Computerized advisory program that imitate the reasoning processes of experts in solving difficult problems
Entity class
In the relational database model is a collection of similar entities
Data mining
The process of analyzing data to extract information not offered by the raw material
Business-to-business (B2B) marketplace
An internet-based service that brings together many buyers and sellers
Business - critical integrity constraint
Enforces business rules vital to an organization's success and often requires more insight and knowledge than relational integrity constrains
Entity
In the relational database model is a person, place, thing, transaction, or event about which information is stored
Information granularity
Refers to the extent of detail within the information (fine and detailed or "coarse" and abstract information)
Transactional information
Encompasses all of the information contained within a single business process or unit of work, and its primary purpose if to support the performing of daily operational tasks
Time-series information
Time-stamped information collected at a particular frequency
Chief knowledge officer (CKO)
Responsible for collecting, maintaining, and distributing the organization's knowledge
Fuzzy logic
A mathematical method of handling imprecise or subjective information
Knowledge
Actionable information
Data dictionary
A file that stores definitions of information types, identifies the primary and foreign keys, and maintains the relationships among the tables
Online analytical processing (OLAP)
The manipulation of information to create business intelligence in support of strategic decision making
Application generation component
Includes tools for creating visually appealing and easy-to-use applications
Chief security officer (CSO)
Responsible for ensuring the security of IT systems and developing strategies and IT safeguards against attacks from hackers and viruses
Environmental scanning
The acquisition and analysis of events and trends in the environment external to an organization
Information-Functional Culture
Employees use information as a means of exercising influence or power over others
Effectiveness IT metrics
Measures that impact IT has on business process and activities including customer satisfaction, conversion rates, and sell-through increases
First-mover advantage
An organization can significantly impact its market share by being first to market with a competitive advantage
Data manipulation component
Allows users to create, read, update, and delete information in database
Online transaction processing (OLTP)
The capturing of transaction and event information using technology to (1) process the information according to defined business rules, (2) store the information, and (3) update existing information to reflect the new information
Information-Discovery Culture
Employees across departments are open to new insights about crisis and radical changes and seek ways to create competitive advantages
Composite attribute
Attribute that can be divided into smaller subparts, which represents more basic attributes that have their own meanings
Digital dashboard
Integrates information from multiple components and tailors the information to individual preferences
Cluster analysis
A technique used to divide an information set into mutually exclusive groups such that the members of each group are as close together as possible to one another an the different groups are as far apart as possible
Value Chain
Views an organization as a series of processes, each of which adds value to the product or service for each customer
Sensitivity analysis
The study of the impact that changes in one (or more) parts of the model have on other parts of the model
Intelligent Agent
A special-purpose knowledge-based information system that accomplishes specific tasks on behalf of its users
Chief Privacy officer (CPO)
Responsible for ensuring the ethical and legal use of information within an organization
Throughput
The amount of information that can travel through a system at any point in time
Switching cost
The costs that can make customers reluctant to switch to another product or service
Shopping bot
Software that will search several retailer Web sites and provide a comparison of each retailer's offerings including price and availability
Entity identifier
ensures that each entity instances has a unique attribute value that distinguishes it from every other entity instance
Artificial Intelligence
Simulates human intelligence such as the ability to reason and learn
Intelligent System
Various commericial applications of artificial intelligence
Structured query language (SQL)
A standardized fourth-generation query language found in most DBMSs
Consolidation
Involves the aggregation of information and features simple roll-ups to complex grouping of interrelated information
Attribute
Characteristics or properties of an entity class
Schema
A completed entity-relationship diagram representing the overall, logical plan of a database
Weak Entity
One that cannot exist in the database unless a related instance of another entity is present and related to it
Goal-seeking analysis
Finds the inputs necessary to achieve a goal such as a desired level of output
Chief technology officer (CTO)
Responsible for ensuring the throughput, speed, accuracy, availability, and reliability of an organization's information technology
Redundancy
The duplication of information, or storing the same information in multiple places
Null valued attribute
An attribute that does not have an applicable value
Information
Data converted into a meaningful and useful context
Data model
a formal way to express data relationships to a database management system
Key performance indicators (KPIs)
Measures that are tied to business drivers
Association detection
Reveals the degree to which variables are related and the nature and frequency of these relationships in the information
Extraction, transformation, and loading (ETL)
A process that extracts information from internal and external databases, transforms the information using a common set of enterprise definitions, and loads the information into a data warehouse
Data
Raw facts that describe the characteristics of an event
View
Allows users to see the contents of a database, make any required changes, perform simple sorting, and query the database to find the location of specific information
One-to-one
relationship between two entities in which an instance of entity A can be related to only one instance of Entity B and Entity B can be related to only one instance of Entity A
Rivalry among existing competitors
High when competition is fierce in a market and low when competition is more complacent
Forecast
Predictions made on the basis of time-series information
Management Information Systems (MIS)
The function that plans for, develops, implements, and maintains IT hardware, software, and applications that people use to support the goals of an organization
Integrity constraint
The rules that help ensure the quality of the information
Efficiency IT metrics
Measures the performance of the IT system itself including throughput, speed and availability
Performance
Measures how quickly a system performs a certain process or transaction (in terms of efficiency IT metrics of both speed and throughput)
Cube
The common term for the representation of multidimensional information
Information
Data converted into a meaningful and useful context
Transaction speed
Amount of time a system takes to perform a transaction
Data
Raw facts that describe the characteristics of an event
Analytical information
Encompasses all organizational information, and its primary purpose is to support the performing of managerial analysis tasks
Primary key
A field (or group of fields) that uniquely identifies a given entity in a table
Neural network (artificial neural network)
A category of AI that attempts to emulate the way the human brain works
Many-to-many
relationship between two entities in which an instance of Entity A can be related to zero, one, or more instances of Entity B and Entity B can be related to zero, one, or more instances of Entity A
Business Process
A standardized set of activities that accomplish a specific task, such as processing of a customer's orders
Database management system (DBMS)
Software through which users and application programs interact with a database
Transaction processing system (TPS)
The basic business system that serves the operational level (analysts) in an organization
Slice-and-dice
The ability to look at information from different perspectives
Scalability
Refers to how well a system can adapt to increased demands
Query-by-example (QBE) tool
Allows users to graphically design the answers to specific questions
Private exchange
A B2B marketplace in which a single buyer posts its needs and then opens the bidding to any supplier who would care to bid
Model
A simplified representation or abstraction of reality
Physical view
The physical storage of information on a storage device such as a hard disk
One-to-many
relationship between two entities, in which an instance of entity A can be related to zero, one, or more instances of Entity B and Entity B can be related to only one instance of Entity A
Chief information officer (CIO)
Responsible for (1) overseeing all uses of information technology and (2) ensuring the strategic alignment of IT with business goals and objectives
Market basket analysis
Analyzes such items as Web sites and checkout scanner information to detect customer's buying behaviour and predict future behaviour by identifying affinities among customers' choices of products and services
Business intelligence (BI)
Information that people use to support their decision-making efforts
Information cleansing or scrubbing
A process that weeds out and fixes or discards inconsistent, incorrect, or incomplete information
Data-mining tool
Uses a variety of techniques to find patterns and relationships in large volumes of information and infer rules from them that predict future behaviour and guide decision making
Information technology (IT)
Any computer-based tool that people use to work with information and supports the information and information-processing needs of an organization
Response time
The time it takes to respond to user interactions such as a mouse click
Backward integration
Takes information entered into a given system and sends it automatically to all upstream systems and processes
Integration
Allows separate systems to communicate directly with each other
Information accuracy
Extent to which a system generates the correct results when executing the same transaction numerous times
Stored attribute
The attribute that is used to drive another attribute
Data mart
Contains a subset of data warehouse information
Data administration component
Provides tools for managing the overall database environment by providing facilities for backup, recovery, security and performance
Web traffic
Includes a host of benchmarks such as the number of page views, the number of unique visitors, and the average time spent viewing a Web page
Database
Maintains information about various types of objects (inventory), events (transactions), people (employees), and places (warehouses)
System availability
Number of hours a system is available for users
Threat of substitute products or services
High when there are many alternatives to a product or service and low when there are few alternatives from which to choose
Genetic algorithm
An artificial intelligence system that mimics the evolutionary, survival-of-the-fittest process to generate increasingly better solutions to a probem
What-if analysis
Checks the impact of a change in an assumption on the proposed solution
Reverse auction
An auction format in which an increasingly lower bids are solicited from organizations willing to supply the desired product or service at an increasingly lower price
Decision support system (DSS)
Models information to support managers and business professional during the decision-making process
Drill-down
Enables users to get details, and details of details, of information
Benchmark
baseline values that the system seeks to attain
Foreign key
A primary key of one table that appears as an attribute in another table and acts to provide a logical relationship between the two tables
Multi-valued attribute
An attribute having the potential to contain more than one value for an attribute at any given time
Logical view
Focuses on how users logically access information to meet their particular business needs
Benchmarking
The process of continuously measuring system results, comparing those results to optimal system performance, and identifying steps and procedures to improve system performance
Network database model
A flexible way of representing objects and their relationships
Information inquiry culture
Employees across departments search for information to better understand the future and align themselves with current trends and new directions
Five forces model
Helps determine the relative attractiveness of an industry
Report generator
Allows users to define format for reports along with what information they want to see in the report
Single-valued attribute
An attribute having only a single value for each attribute at any given time
Relational integrity constraint
The rules that enforce basic and fundamental information-based constraints
Optional Cardinality
An instance of Entity A does not have to be related to an instance of Entity B
Competitive advantage
A product or service that an organization's customers place a greater value on than similar offerings from a competitor
Information integrity
A measure of the quality of information
Supply chain
Consists of all parties involved, directly or indirectly, in the procurement of a product or raw material
Entity-Relationship Diagram
Technique for documenting the relationships between entities in a database environment

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