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chapter 6


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relational database model
stores info in the form of logically related two-dimensional tables
forward integration
takes info entered into a given system and sends it automatically to all downstream systems and processes
data manipulation component
allows users to create, read, update, and delete info in a database
the duplication of info or storing the same info in multiple places
relational integrity constraint
rule that enforces basic and fundamental information-based constraints
hierarchical database model
info is organized into a tree-like structure (using parent/child relationships) in such a way that it can't have too many relationships
maintains info about various types of objects (inventory), events (transactions), people (employees), and places (warehouses)
refers to how well a system can adapt to increased demands
common term for the representation of multidimensional information
data dictionary
a file that sorts definitions of info types, identifies the primary and foreign keys, and maintains the relationships among the tables
access control
determines types of user access, such as read-only access
foreign key
a primary key of one table that appears an attribute in another table and acts to provide a logical relationship among the two tables
integrity consultant
rules that help ensure the quality of info
allows users to see, change, sort, and query the database content
report generator
users can define report formulas
data definition component
creates and maintains the data dictionary and the structure of the database
extraction, transformation, and loading (ETL)
a process that extracts info from internal and external databases, transforms the info using a common set of enterprise definitions, and loads the info into a data warehouse
market basket analysis
analyzes such items as Web sites and checkout scanner info to detect customers' buying behavior and predict future behavior by identifying affinities among customers' choices or products and services
business intelligence
information that people use to support their decision-making efforts
data warehouse
a logical collection of info--gathered from many different operational databases--that supports business analysis activities and decision-making tasks
application generation component
includes tools for creating visually appealing and easy-to-use applications
a person, place, thing, transaction, or event about which info is stored
statistical analysis
performs such functions an info correlations, distributions, calculations, and variance analysis
physical view
deals with the physical storage of info on a storage device
data mining
the process of analyzing data to extract info not offered by the raw data alone
access level
determines who has access to the different types of info
primary key
a field (or group of fields) that uniquely identifies a given entity in a table
information cleansing or scrubbing
a process that weeds out and fixes or discards inconsistent, incorrect, or incomplete info
backward integration
takes info entered into a given system and sends it automatically to all upstream systems and processes
structures query language (SQL)
query language
data-mining tool
uses a variety of techniques to find patterns and relationships in large volumes of info and infers the rules that predict future behavior and guide decision making
predictions made on the basis of time-series info
data mart
contains a subset of data warehouse info
measures how quickly a system performs a certain process or transaction
entity class (table)
a collection of similar entities
allows seperate systems to communicate directly with each other
cluster analysis
a technique used to divide an info set into mutually exclusive groups such that the members of each group are as close together as possible to one another and the different groups are as far apart as possible
information granularity
refers to the extent of detail within the information (fine and detailed or coarse and abstract)
provides authentication of the user
query-by-example (QBE)
users can graphically design the answers to specific questions
data administration component
provides tools for managing the overall database environment by providing faculties for backup, recovery, security, and performance
attributes (fields, columns)
characteristics or properties of an entity class
business-critical integrity constraint
rule that enforces business rules vital to an organization's success and often requires more insight and knowledge than relational integrity constraints
information integrity
measures the quality of information
time-series info
time-stamped info collected at a particular frequency
association detection
reveals the degree to which variables are related and the nature and frequency of these relationships in the info
logical view
focuses on how users logically access info

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