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Chemistry - Periodic Table


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What does periodic law state?
It says that the chemical properties of the elements are dependent, in a systematic way, upon their atomic numbers
How are elements arranged?
They are arranged in periods (rows) and groups (columns)
How many periods are there?
There are seven periods
What do they represent?
They represent the principal quantum numbers n = 1 to n = 7
What do groups represent?
They represent elements that have the same electronic configuration in their valence, or outermost shell
What do things in the same group share?
They share similar chemical properties
What are the electrons in the outermost shell called?
They are called valence electrons
What are the A elements called?
They are called the representative elements
What do the A elements have as their outermost orbitals?
They have either s or p sublevels
What are the B elements called?
They are the nonrepresentative elements
What partly filled sublevels do the transitions elements have?
They have partly filled d sublevels
What partly filled sublevels do the lanthanide and actinide series have?
They have partially filled f sublevels
What is the ionization potential?
It is the energy required to completely remove an electron from a gaseous atom or ion
What does removing an electron from an atom always require?
It always requires an input of energy
How does ionization energy relate to the distance from an electron to its nucleus?
The closer and more tightly bound an electron is to the nucleus, the more difficult it will be to remove
What is the first ionization energy?
It is the energy required to remove one valence electron from the parent atom
What is the second ionization energy?
It is the energy needed to remove a second valence electron from the univalent ion to form the divalent ion, and so on
Which ionization energy is more, the first or second energy?
The second ionization energy is always greater than the first
What is electron affinity?
It is the energy change that occurs when an electron is added to a gaseous atom, and it represents the ease with which the atom can accept an electron
How does attractive pull relate to electron affinity?
The strong the attractive pull of the nucleus for electrons, the greater the electron affinity will be
What electron affinities do the noble gases have?
They have electron affinities on the order of zero, since they already possess a stable octet and cannot readily accept an electron
What is electronegativity?
It is the measure of the attraction an atom has for electrons in a chemical bond
What characteristics do metals have?
They are shiny solids except for mercury at room temperature, and they have high melting points and densities
What is malleability?
It is the ability of a metal to be hammered into shapes
What is ductility?
It is the ability of a metal to be drawn into wires
What are some other characteristic properties?
They have a large atomic radius, low ionization energy, and low electronegativity
What are those factors due to?
They are due to the fact that the few electrons in the valence shell of a metal atom can easily be removed
What does this imply about their conductivity?
Because the valence electrons can move freely, metals are good conductors of heat and electricity
What are the most reactive metals?
Group IA and IIA are the most reactive metals
What are characteristics of nonmetals?
They are generally brittle in the solid state and show little or no metallic luster
What about their ionization energies?
They have high ionization energies and electronegativities
Do the conduct?
They are usually poor conductors of heat and electricity
Do nonmetals gain electrons easily?
Most nonmetals share the ability to gain electrons easily
What are alkali metals?
They are the elements of Group IA
What are their densities?
Their densities are lower than those of other metals
How are their atomic radii?
They have smaller atomic radii than the alkali metal
Do they readily lose or gain electrons?
They readily lose their valence electron to form univalent cations
What are alkaline earths?
They are the elements of Group IIA
Do they gain or lose electrons?
They have two valence electrons that are not held very tightly to the nucleus, so they can be removed to form divalent cations
What are halogens?
They are Group VIIA. They are highly reactive nonmetals with seven valence electrons
What are noble gases?
They are also called inert gases, and they are found in Group VIII
Are they reactive?
They are fairly nonreactive because they have a complete valence shell
Do they have high or low boiling points?
They have low boiling points?
Are the transition elements metals?
They are all considered metals
Do they have high or low melting and boiling points?
They have high melting and boiling points

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