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IFSM 201


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Relational database
Database that stores data in tables that consist of rows and columns, with each row having a primary key and each column having a unique name.
Electronic commerce or e-commerce
A business transaction conducted over the Web.
Project Lead
Member of a project team who manages and controls the budget and schedule of the project.
Decision Support System or DSS
Information system that helps users analyze data and make decisions.
License agreement
An agreement issued by a software manufacturer that gives the user the right to use the software.
Home network
Network consisting of multiple devices and computers connected together in a home.
Broadcast Radio
Wireless transmission medium that distributes radio signals through the air over long distances such as between cities, regions, and countries and short distances such as within an office or home.
Wide Area Network or WAN
Network that covers a large geographic area (such as a city, country, or the world) using a communications channel that combines many types of media such as telephone lines, cables, and radio waves.
Copyrighted software provided at no cost to a user by an individual or a company that retains all rights to the software.
Bus (computer)
Electrical channel that transfers electronic bits internally within the circuitry of a computer, allowing the devices both inside and attached to the system unit to communicate with each other.
Warm boot
Process of using the operating system to restart a computer.
Computer-Based Training or CBT
Type of education in which students learn by using and completing exercises with instructional software.
Virtual Private Network or VPN
Network that provides a mobile user with a secure connection to a company network server, as if the user has a private line.
Enterprise Resource Planning or ERP
Provides centralized, integrated software to help manage and coordinate the ongoing activities of the enterprise.
Text messaging or Short Messaging Service or SMS
Service that allows user to send and receive short text messages on a smart phone or PDA.
Dial-up modem
Communications device that converts a computer's digital signals to analog signals.
Hardware and/or software that protects a network's resources from intrusion by users on another network such as the Internet.
Kilobyte or KB or K
Exactly 1,024 bytes.
Random Access Memory or RAM
Type of memory that can be read from and written to by the processor and other devices. This information remains in memory for as long as the computer has continuous power.
Collection and summarization of data and information.
Small Office/Home Office or SOHO
Describes any company with fewer than 50 employees, as well as the self-employed who work from home.
Specialist ASP
Application service provider that delivers applications to meet a specific business need, such as human resources or project management.
Fastest, most powerful, and most expensive computer, capable of processing more than 100 trillion instructions in a single second.
Mobile device
Computing device small enough for a user to hold in his or her hand.
Working model of a proposed system.
Terabyte or TB
Approximatley one trillion bytes.
Accounting software
Software that helps companies record and report their financial transactions.
Control unit
Component of a processor that directs and coordinates most of the operations in the computer.
Hyperlink or link
Built-in connection to another related Web page or part of a Web page.
Assembly Language
Programming language in which a programmer writes instructions using symbolic instruction codes.
Notebook computer or Laptop computer
Portable, personal computer designed to fit on a user's lap.
Twisted-pair cable
Transmission media that consists of one or more twisted-pairs of wires bundled together.
Work arrangement in which employees work away from a company's standard workplace and often communicate with the office through the computer.
Local/Regional ASP
Application service provider that offers a variety of software applications to a specific geographic region.
Denial of Service Attack or DoS Attack
Assault on a computer or network whose purpose is to disrupt computer access to an Internet service such as the Web or e-mail.
Megabyte or MB
Approximately 1 million bytes.
Term for any network based on the 802.11 series of standards.
Web-Based Training or WBT
Computer-based training that uses Internet technology and consists of application software on the Web.
Database Management System or DBMS
Program that allows users to create a computerized database; add, change, and delete data in the database; sort and retrieve data from the database; and create forms and reports from the data in the database.
Process of starting or restarting a computer.
Local Area Network or LAN
Network that connects computers and devices in a limited geographical area such as a home, school, computer laboratory, office building, or closely positioned group of buildings.
Exclusive rights given to authors and artists to duplicate, publish, and sell their materials.
Application software
Program designed to make users more productive and/or assist them with personal tasks.
Digital Subscriber Line or DSL
Type of digital technology that provides high-speed Internet connections using regular copper telephone lines.
Wireless access point
Central communications device that allows computers and devices to transfer data wirelessly among themselves or to transfer data wirelessly to a wired network.
Online area in which users have written discussions about a particular subject.
Electronic mail or E-mail
The transmission of messages and files via a computer network.
Flash memory
Type of nonvolatile memory that can be erased electronically and rewritten.
ROM chips that contain permanently written data, instructions, or information, recorded on the chips when they were manufactured.
Information privacy
Right of individuals and companies to deny or restrict the collection and use of information about them.
Private combination of characters associated with a username that allows access to certain computer resources.
Web browser or Browser
Application software that allows users to access and view Web pages.
Request for specific data from a database.
Mobile computer
Personal computer that a user can carry from place to place.
Data Warehouse
Huge database that stores and manages the data required to analyze historical and current transactions.
Storage media
The physical material on which a computer keeps data, instructions, and information.
Home user
User who spends time on a computer at home.
Cold boot
Process of turning on a computer that has been powered off completely.
Electronic Data Interchange or EDI
Set of standards that controls the transfer of business data and information among computers both within and among enterprises.
Operating system
Set of programs that coordinates all the activities among computer hardware devices.
Midrange server
Server that is more powerful and larger than a workstation computer, typically supporting several hundred and sometimes up to a few thousand connected computers at the same time.
Short for Internet etiquette, the code of acceptable behaviors users should follow while on the Internet.
Computer security risk
Any event or action that could cause a loss of or damage to computer hardware, software, data, information, or processing capability.
Electronic device, operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory, that can accept data, process the data according to specified rules, produce results, and store the results for future use.
Collection of data organized in a manner that allows access, retrieval, and use of that data.
Unit test
Test performed during the program development cycle that verifies each individual program works by itself.
Hypertext Markup Language or HTML
Special formatting language that programmers use to format documents for display on the Web.
Unsolicited e-mail message or newsgroup posting sent to many recipients or newsgroups at once.
IP address
A number that uniquely identifies each computer or device connected to the Internet.
Web server
Computer that delivers requested Web pages to a computer.
Process of verifying the technical knowledge of an individual who has demonstrated competence in a particular area.
Mainframe computer or Mainframe
Large, expensive, powerful computer that can handle hundreds or thousands of connected users simultaneously, storing tremendous amounts of data, instructions, and information.
File Transfer Protocol or FTP
Internet standard that permits file uploading and downloading with other computers on the Internet.
Online auction
E-commerce method that allows consumers to bid on an item being sold by someone else.
Online or Internet-based illegal acts.
Wireless Application Protocol or WAP
Network standard, specifically a protocol, that specifies how some wireless mobile devices such as smart phones and PDAs can display the content of Internet services such as the Web, e-mail, chat rooms, and newsgroups.
Project Management Software (system developers)
Software that assists in planning, scheduling, and controlling development projects.
Online help
Electronic equivalent of a user manual that usually is integrated in a program.
Output device
Any hardware component that conveys information to one or more people.
Antivirus program
Program that protects a computer against viruses by identifying and removing any computer viruses found in memory, on storage media, or on incoming files.
Project Management or PM
Process of planning, scheduling, and then controlling the activities during the system development cycle.
Computer-Aided Design or CAD
Software that aids in engineering, drafting, and design.
Transaction Processing System or TPS
Information system that captures and processes data from day-to-day business activities.
Desktop computer
Computer designed so the system unit, input devices, output devices, and any other devices fit entirely on or under a desk or table.
Volume ASP
Application service provider that supplies pre-packaged applications, such as accounting, to businesses.
Utility program
Type of system software that allows a user to perform maintenance-type tasks usually related to managing a computer, its devices, or its programs.
Chat Room
Location on an Internet server that permits users to chat with each other.
Steering Committee
Decision-making body in a company.
Home network that uses radio waves, instead of cables, to transmit data.
System unit
Case that contains the electronic components of a computer that are used to process data.
Collection of computers and devices connected together via communications devices and transmission media, allowing computers to share resources.
Program placed on a computer without the user's knowledge that secretly collects information about the user.
Communications satellite
Space station that receives microwave signals form an earth-based station, amplifies (strengthens) the signals, and broadcasts the signals over a wide area to any number of earth-based stations.
Web services
Set of software technologies that allows businesses to create products and B2B interactions over the Internet.
Computer-Aided Manufacturing or CAM
Use of computers to assist with manufacturing processes such as fabrication and assembly.
Electric, electronic, and mechanical components contained in a computer.
Word processing software
One of the more widely used types of application software; allows a user to create and manipulate documents containing mostly text and sometimes graphics.
Collection of unprocessed items, which can include text, numbers, images, audio, and video.
Project Management Software (users)
Application software that allows a user to plan, schedule, track, and analyze the events, resources, and costs of a project.
Enterprise ASP
Application service provider that customizes and delivers high-end business applications, such as finance and database.
Defined process that identifies the specific set of steps involved in completing a particular project or business process.
Miniature image displayed on a computer screen that represents a program, an instruction, a document, or some other object.
Database software
Application software used to create, access, and manage a database; add, change, and delete data in the database; sort and retrieve data from the database; and create forms and reports using the data in the database.
Practice of offloading storage management to an outside organization or online Web service.
Voice over IP or VoIP
Technology that allows users to speak to other users over the Internet using their desktop computer, mobile computer, or mobile device.
Dedicated line
Type of always-on connection that is established between two communications devices (unlike a dial-up line where the connection is reestablished each time it is used).
Customer Relationship Management or CRM
System that manages information about customers, interactions with customers, past purchases, and interest.
Wireless Internet Service Provider or WISP
Type of Internet service provider that provides wireless Internet access to computers with wireless modems or access devices or to Internet-enabled mobile computers or devices.
Main circuit board of a system unit, which has some electronic components attached to it and others built into it.
Report generator or Report writer
DBMS feature that allows users to design a report on the screen, retrieve data into the report design, and then display or print the report.
Note taking software
Application software that enables users to enter typed text, handwritten comments, drawings, or sketches anywhere on a page.
Global Positioning System or GPS
Navigation system that consists of one or more earth-based receivers that accept and analyze signals sent by satellites in order to determine the receiver's geographic location.
Tablet PC
Special type of notebook computer that resembles a letter-sized slate, which allows a user to write on the screen using a digital pen.
Web site that offers a variety of Internet services from a single, convenient location.
Cable modem
Digital modem that sends and receives digital data over the cable television (CATV) network.
Gigabyte or GB
Approximately 1 billion bytes.
System Development Cycle
Set of activities used to build an information system, including planning, analysis, design, implementation, and support.
Network standard, specifically a protocol, that defines how two Bluetooth devices use short-range radio waves to transmit data.
Office Information System or OIS
Information system that enables employees to perform tasks using computers and other electronic devices, instead of manually.
Electrical disturbance that occurs when the electrical supply drops.
Search engine
Program that finds Web sites and Web pages.
Coaxial cable
A single copper wire surrounded by at least three layers (1) an insulating material, (2) a woven or braided metal, and (3) a plastic outer coating.
Custom software
Software that performs functions specific to a business or industry, developed by a user or at a user's request.
Process in which two or more computers or devices transfer data, instructions, and information.
Web community
Web site that joins a specific group of people with similar interests or relationships.
User name
Unique combination of characters, such as letters of the alphabet and/or numbers, that identifies a specific user.
Code of conduct
Written guidelines that help determine whether a specific computer action is ethical or unethical.
Information Technology Department
Department in most medium and large businesses responsible for keeping computers and networks running smoothly.
Computer-Aided Software Engineering or CASE
Software tools designed to support one or more activities of the system development cycle, typically including diagrams to support both process and object modeling.
Read-Only Memory or ROM
Type of nonvolatile memory that is used to store permanent data and instructions.
System software
Programs that control or maintain the operations of a computer and its devices.
Audit Trail or Log
Computer file that records both successful and unsuccessful access attempts.
Type of media that transmits multiple signals simultaneously.
Arithmetic Logic Unit or ALU
Component of a processor that performs arithmetic, comparison, and other operations.
USB port
Port that can connect up to 127 different peripherals with a single connector type.
Personal Information Manager or PIM
Application software that includes features to help users organize personal information.
Smart phone
Internet-enabled telephone that usually also provides PDA capabilities.
Web page
Electronic document on the Web, which can contain text, graphics, audio, and video and often has built-in connections to other documents, graphics, Web pages, or Web sites.
Software suite
Collection of individual programs sold as a single package. Business software suites typically include work processing, spreadsheet, e-mail, and presentation graphics software.
Acceptance test
Test performed by end-users during the program development cycle that checks the new system to ensure that it works with actual data.
Storage device
Hardware used to record (write and/or read) items to and from storage media.
Copyrighted software that is distributed at no cost for a trial period.
Spreadsheet software
Application software that allows a user to organize data in rows and columns and to perform calculations on the data.
Measure of how suitable the development of a system will be to a company.
Application service provider or ASP
Third-party organization that manages and distributes software and service on the web.
Vertical Market ASP
Application service provider that provides applications for a particular industry, such as construction, health care, or retail.
Fiber-optic cable
Dozens or hundreds of strands of glass or plastic that use light to transmit signals.
Overvoltage or power surge
Electrical disturbance that occurs when the incoming electrical power increases significantly above the normal 120 volts.
Communications device that connects multiple computers or other routers together and transmits data to its correct destination on a network.
Desktop Publishing Software or DTP
Application software used by professional designers to create sophisticated documents that can contain text, graphics, and many colors.
Adapter Card or Expansion Card
Circuit board that enhances functions of a component of a system unit and/or provides connections to peripherals.
Parallel port
Type of interface that connects devices to the system unit by transferring more than one bit at a time.
Personal computer or PC
Computer that can perform all of its input, processing, output, and storage activities by itself and contains a processor, memory, one or more input and output devices, and storage devices.
Information system
Collection of hardware, software, data, people, and procedures that work together to produce quality information.
Domain name
Text version of an IP address.
Duplicate of a file, program, or disk that can be used if the original is lost, damaged, or destroyed.
Project team
Group of people that consists of users, the systems analyst, and other IT professionals.
Expert System or ES
Information system that captures and stores the knowledge of human experts and then imitates human reasoning and decision making.
Software that helps groups of people work together on projects and share information over a network.
Instruction on a menu that causes a program to perform a specific action.
Central Processing Unit or CPU
Electronic component on a computer's motherboard that interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate the computer.
Management Information System or MIS
Curriculum that teaches students technical knowledge and skills and focuses on how to apply skills.
Communications device
Any type of hardware capable of transmitting data, instructions, and information between a sending device and a receiving device.
Process of comparing data with a set of rules or values to find out if the data is correct.
Uniform Resource Locator or URL or Web Address
Unique address for a Web page.
Bus (network)
The physical cable that connects the computer and other devices in a bus network.
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol or TCP/IP
Network standard, specifically a protocol, that defines how messages (data) are routed from one end of a network to the other, ensuring the data arrives correctly.
Network Interface Card or NIC or Network Card
Adapter card, PC card, or flash card that enables the computer or device to access a network.
Processed data that conveys meaning and is useful to people.
System clock
Small quartz crystal circuit that is used by the processor to control the timing of all computer operations.
An internal network that uses Internet technologies.
Object-Oriented Database
Database that stores data in objects.
Personal Digital Assistant or PDA
One of the more popular lightweight mobile devices in use today, providing personal organizer functions.
Content filtering
Process of restricting access to certain material on the Web.
Type of media that transmits only one signal at a time.
Portion of a company's network that allows customers or suppliers of a company to access parts of an enterprise's internet.
Serial port
Type of interface that connects a device to the system unit by transmitting data one bit at a time.
Location in which data, instructions, and information are held for future use.
Radio waves that provide a high-speed signal transmission.
Computer ethics
Moral guidelines that govern the use of computers and information systems.
FireWire port
Port that can connect multiple types of devices that require faster data transmission speeds.
Power user
User who requires the capabilities of a workstation or other powerful computer, typically working with multimedia applications and using industry-specific software.
DSL modem
Modem that sends digital data and information from a computer to a DSL line and receives digital data and information from a DSL line.
Repetitive Stress Injury or RSI
Injury or disorder of the muscles, nerves, tendons, ligaments, and joints.
System test
Test performed during the program development cycle that verifies all programs in an application work together.
Worldwide collection of networks that connects millions of businesses, government agencies, educational institutions, and individuals.
Point at which peripheral attaches to or communicates with a system unit so it can send data or receive information from the computer.
IrDA or Infrared Data Association
Network standard used to transmit data wirelessly via infrared (IR) light waves.
Program development cycle
Series of steps programmers use to build computer programs, consisting of six steps (1) analyze requirements, (2) design solutions, (3) validate design, (4) implement design, (5) test solution, and (6) document solution.
Procedural language
Type of programming language in which a programmer writes instructions that tell the computer what to accomplish and how to do it using a series of English-like words to write instructions.
Online Service Provider or OSP
Company that provides Internet access as well as many members-only features.
Structured Query Language or SQL
Query language used with databases that allows users to manage, update, and retrieve data.
Dial-up line
Temporary connection that uses one or more analog telephone lines or communications.
Automated assistant that helps a user complete a task by asking questions and then automatically performing actions based on the response.
Device that connects to a system unit and is controlled by the processor in the computer.
Cellular radio
Form of broadcast radio that is used widely for mobile communications, specifically wireless modems and cellular telephones.
Computer crime
Any illegal act involving a computer.
Electronic components in a computer that store instructions waiting to be executed and data needed by those instructions.
Graphical User Interface or GUI
Type of user interface that allows a user to interact with software using text, graphics, and visual images, such as icons.
Expansion slot
Socket on a motherboard that can hold an adapter card.
Mobile user
Users who work on a computer while away from a main office or school.
Presentation graphics software
Application software that allows a user to create visual aids for presentations to communicate ideas, messages, and other information to a group.
Enterprise computing
The use of computers in networks, such as LANs and WANs, or a series of interconnected networks that encompass a variety of different opreating systems, protocols, and network architectures.

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