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Blueprints Of Life

Full Summary For Blue Prints Of Life combined with Jacaranda, Excel and Macquarie guides. Ideal for last minute cram.


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Alternative forms of the same gene
pg 176jac
The genetic Lottery
Art. pollination
The building blocks of living organisms. They consists of chains of amini acids
Proteins 34
Sec. sources - Showing how an env. change can lead to changes in a species 127 figure 4.12
How natural selection works? [ Diagram]
The relationship between the structure and behaviour of chromosomes during meiosis and the inheirtence of genes
pg jac227
No sex at all! cloning
The relationship between dominant and recessive alleles and phenotypes
Genes. Alleles
What do we call Mendel's factors? What do we call the alternative forms?
Fundamental Genetic material of all living things
Chemical basis of heredity
What does the 'blueprint of life' refer to?
Cloning an animal from a cell taken from the adult
pg 155-6 jac
Mendel's model in action
The potential impact pf the use of rep. tech. on genetic diversity of species
Breaks DNA molecules into smaller pieces
Restriction Enzymes
pg 169jac
Homozygous and heterozygous genotypes and the resulting phenotype in examples of co-dominance
macpg45-6 2.2.4
Genes and alleles
Only one trait is studied
Monohybrid cross
pfg 49 mac + excel 36
The work of Sutton and Boveri
pg 160 jac
Relationshop bet. alleles
153 jac
Why Mendel did it?
excel 45
Current reprod. and gen...
Pg 38. MAc
Analyse how advances in technologt have changed scientific thinking abt evolutionary relationships
occurs when one inherited variety in a population is more successful in prdcing viable offspring than other varieties.
Differential reproduction
pg 163jac
Co-dominance 33
How does the peppered moth model natural selection?
Refers to any environmental agent that acts on a population and results in differential reproduction by the various inherited varieties present in population.
Natural Selection
pg jac230
Direct gene transfer between species
What does Meiosis prdce?
pg 178jac + see diagram on following page
Boveri and sea urchin
pg 166jac
A surprise for Mndel
pg 160 jac
Genotypes and phenotypes
A characteristic that increases the chances of survival and reproduction of an organism
pg jac225
Artificial pollination in plants
Where are mendel's factors [genes] located?
That discrete units are inherited from each parent and explained why some features seemed to jump generations and reappear in a later generation
What hypothesis of inheritence did Mendel propose
pg 158 jac
Responses to Mendel's results
sEC SOURCE: desc a methadology used in cloning
Give birth to partly developed embryos that move into a pouch to complete development
Marsupial mammals
He proved previos belief wrng [ see mg mac 42] and that for each trait, one factor was dominant; the factor for tall was dominant over the factor for short,
What did Mendel suggest from his exp?
Pedigree tables
mac. pg 39
What does theory of evolution by natural selection + isolation include
pg38excel 2.14
Diagram - crossing over
Swapping of sections of chromatids during the first stage of meiosis
Crossing over
pg jac231
key to transgenic organisms
x-linked genes: in humans and other mammals
pg37excel 2.13
Diagram - Possible combinations in Gametes
Process by which changes occur in populations of organisms over time.
Homozygous and heterozygous genotypes in co-dominance 32-excel pg 32
First Hand Invest. Model natural Selection
Similar structures,with diff. functions, that have been derived from a common ancestor.
Homologuous Structures
Changes in chemical conditions in the env.
pg 180jac
The contribution of Sutton
Under constant env.rnmtal conditions.
Under what conditions would the population of organisms remain unchanged?
See mac pg 43
What did Mendel conclude from his experiment?
Current repro. tech. and how they alter the gentic composition of a population
[First Filial] F1 generation- This is the generation of offspring prdced.
F1 Generation
Mendel used the garden pea plant, pitsum sativum, in a series of experiments to investigate inheritence of characteristics
What did mendel use in his experiment?
They made observations of divergence [ closely related org. that have very diff. features] and convergence[Distantly related organisms that have very similar features.]
Using the theories , what kind of observations did darwin and wallace make?
Strand of a duplicated chromosome joined to the other chromatid by a centromere
Greger mendel
Who discovered the actual patterns of inheritence?
A protein that transport oxygen in the blood
Are the ones that give greater chance of survival and reproduction
what are the traits favoured by natural selection?
pg 33 excel
Sec. info. Use of trangenic species
Ways in which envr. can affect the expression of a gene in an individial
pg 158 jac
Mendel's overall results
All the genes in a population
Gene Pool
He identified seven easily distinguishable characteristics, or traits that had alternative forms,which mendel thought were controlled by factors.[known as genes]see macpg42
What did mendel observe in his experiment?
When is the test cross used?
Successful reproduction; this means not all members of a population reproduce.compet. + envmntl pressures mean that individuals with inheritable traits or adaptations that are best suited to the env. will be more likely to survive and reproduce, passing these charact. onto offsprings
What does the survival of a species depend on?
Homozygous + Heterozygous
Group of organisms that can interbreed to produce fertile offspring
The impact of reproductive technlogies and genetic engineering
Charles Darwin + Alfred Russel Wallace 1958
Who proposed the theory of evolution by natural selection
2.3.4a pg 51 mac
Diagram for Meiosis
Mixing of DNA from two species to form a hybrid molecule that has one strand from each species.
DNA DNA hybridisation
Construct a model to demonstrate meiosis...
129-136 - Jac.
Evidence for evolution theory
When members of a population may be uniform and show no variations in regard to a trait.
seepg54mac + do questions and answers
Sex linkage and co-dominance
A five-digit limb, such as a hand or a wing
Pentadactyl limb
The processes used to prdce transgenic speices and reasons for its use
-Physical Agents 2. Biologica; Agents 3.Chemical agents
What are agents of natural selection
Pg 37. Mac
Observe, analyse and compare the structure of a range of verterbrae forelimbs
pg jac237
Loss of genetic variations
macpg.34-answer questions
Paleontology,Biogeography, Comp.emb, com. anatomy,Biochemistry
Unborn offspring in the early stages of development
Revealing more detailed info. abt the biochemistry of organisms , prvding stronger evidence of the evol. relationsops between organisms
What are the advantage of the advances in technology?
pg jac224
What sex do you want?
Population of one species living in different places and under different conditions could evolve over time in diff. directions
What was the darwin-wallace theory of evolution?
pg 177jac
Cytologist at work
Are only expressed in the phenotype if no dominant allele is present
Recessive Alleles
A molecule formed from a nitrogen base , a sugar and a phosphate unit
pg 189jac
Sex Linkage
pg52 mac
How does the structure of the chromosome during meiosis relate to the normal inheritance of genes?
Why was Mendel;s results successful and reliable?
Natural selection
What is the cause of evolution?
Changes in physical conditions in the env.
Artificial insemination
figure5.3 pg151 jac
Process of artificial crosses pf pea flowers frm diff. plnts
pg jac234
Transgenic organisms
How tech. may alter the genetic comp. of a pop. 41
Historical development of evolution
1. Physical Conditions 2. Chemical Conditions 3. Competition for resources
What do changes in environment include that lead to evolution?
pg37excel 2.12
Diagram - Events in sexual reproduction
Prvde evidnece of the existence of organisms from the geological past-directly,for ex. through fossilised bones and leaves , and indirectly , for ex. thru tracks and impressions
The role of gamete formation and sexual reproduction in variability of offspring
Give birth to fully developed young. They incl. all mammals other than marsupials and monotremes
Eutherian Mammals
Type and arrangement of genes
pg 193jac
What are genes made of?
Process used to prduce trangenic species
see og 43mqac 2.2.3& pg 44
What did Mendel's work show
Mac pg 43 table 2.2
Important Terms to know!
Vaiation in other traits due to the action of many genes
pg 50.
The chemical nature of chromosome and genes
Chromosomes in the nucleus are copied[replicated]The copies are called chromatids, are linked by a centromere
What happens b4 a cell undergoes meiosis 38
Desc. an example of a technological advance that has led to changes in thinking abt evolutionary relationships
Punnett Squares
Gregor Mendel had no knwledge of chromosomes or genes, yet he laid the foundation for the science of genetics.
What did Gregor mendel provide interms of chromosomes or genes?
pg jac222
Artifical insemination in livestock
Concept that species can change and give rise over time to new forms . It means that past and modern species are related and the different kinds of organism living today are descended from varipus kinds of organism that lived in the geological past.
Reveals that, over time changes have occurred in the types of organism living on this planet
What does fossil record reveals
The work of Morgan that led to the understanding of sex linkage 39-40 [ give example]
Divergent evolution ; convergent ev.
Evolution of this nature which changes the genetic composition of populations
pg jac 222
Down on the farm
pg 188jac
Human chromosomes
Inheritence: which part of the nucleus
How was Mendel's work unrecognised for 34 yrs?
Expressed if both genes are the recessive form; that is, if no dominant form is present
Dominant Genes
Solve problems inv. monohybrid crosses using Punnett squares
The point where two chromatids join
Use internal metabolic processes to produce heat
pg 168jac
Family pedigrees
How meiosis work?
pg 154-5 jac
Mendel's model of inheritence
can be sored in the nucleus of a single cell
Where is the info stored [ the one needed to create a complex organisms]
The inheritence of sex linked genes and alleles that exhibit co-dominance
Inherited variations due to the action of single gene
Monogenic traits
Hybridisation + example
1.structural 2. Biochemical 3. Physiological 4. Behavioural 5. Developmental 6. Geographic [ 119]
Variation present in a popl may be classified into?
Only expressed if both genes are the recessive forml that is, if no dominant form is present
Recessive genes
When members of a population can be organised into a few discrete and non overlapping classes with respect to variation in trait. An example is flower colour in boronia floribunda where three groups are recognised- white, pink and red
Discontinuous Variation
How does crossing over during meiosis produces variability?
Potential impact of reproduction tech, on gentic diversity
1. Paleontology 2. Biogeography 3. Comparitive embryology 4. Comparitive anatomy 4. Comparitive embryology 5. Biochemistry
What sources provide the support for the theories of evolution
Seven traits studies by Mendel
Excel 30
Examples of transitional forms
Opening for the movement of water across gills
Gill Slits
153 jac
How mendel did it?
Chromosomes: gene carriers
pg 181-2jac
Are chromosomes equivalent
Describe the two main stages of meiosis
Changes in comp. for resources
during production of sex cells or gametes
When does Meiosis occur
Show 2 or more variations of a trait, the pop. is said to be polymorphic
Understanding sex linkage
Through a genetic code
How is the info. passed on to generations?
Evolution over geological time produces changes in isolated populations that can result in the appearance of new species and even higher groups such as genera and families.
Members of an interbreeding species living in an area at a specific time
pg 164jac
Outcomes of a cross true-breeding [ diagram]
One species could change to produce new species
Transmutation of species
Part of chromosomes; they are the units of inheritence
What are the sources of the variability that occur as a result of sexual reproduction?
Jac. pg 138-42
Case study in microevolution
His work demonstrated that inheritence occurred in a definite pattern, marking the begining of the modern science of genetics
What did Greger Mendel's work demonstrated?
Are expressed in the phenotype whether they are heterozygous or homozygous.
Dominant Alleles
Action taken by breeders and others in selecting from a population only those members that show specific expression of a parti. trait to be the parent of the next generation
Artificial Selection
Suggests that each of the different kinds of fossil organisms from the past and each modern species would have been specially created.
Special creation of species
chromosomes with new chromatid parts as a result of crossing over
Excel 30
Area of study supporting theory of evolution
pg 185jac
Sources of variability among offsprings
When members of a pop. vary across a continuum . Example [ Adult height, which forms a normal distribution with fewr people at aither end of the range and most in the middle.
Continuous variation
Mendel's laws could be expl. by the behaviour of chromosomes during meiosis and fertilisation; the chrmsmes prvde the physical exp. of mendels results: seep g mac 49
What happened after the identification of chromosomes?
development of one or more new species from an existing species
Fossils that show charact. that place them between major classification groups
Transitional form
pg 161-2jac
Exmple of comp. dominance + being a carrier
Cloning an animal from an embryo
When inherited [genetic] variations can exist However not all variation is inherited. Some are inherited whilst others are due to env. factors.
How must evolutionary change occur in a population?
Seperated populations identified as distinct subspecies
pg 160 jac
Construct a pedigree. prescribed activiyt
pg157 jac
Using Punnett squares
Theory of evolution which suggests that changes in species occur suddenly followed by long periods of no change
Punctuated equilibrium
pg jac233
cloning transgenic organisms
Examples of simple dominance in monohybrid crosses

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