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Ch. 1 - 3 Vocab

Terms

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Roanoke*
North Carolina's Roanoke Island, mysteriously vanished, swallowed up by the wilderness.
Massachusetts Bay Colony*
A group of non-separatist Puritans who were seeking protection for their freedom of religion, ended up securing a royal charter to form the Massachusetts Bay Company. The Massachusetts Bay enterprise was immediately successful. Eleven vessels carrying an estimated 1000 immigrants started the colony off in a larger scale than any other. Waves of Puritans were coming to Massachusetts Bay Colony in the following decade because of the turmoil in England.
Barbados Slave Codes
The Barbados slave code of 1661 denied even the most fundamental rights to slaves and gave masters virtually complete control over their laborers.
Panama
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Vasco da Gama*
Ten years after Bartholomeu Dias rounded the tip of Africa, Vasco de Gama reached India and returned home with a small but tantalizing cargo of jewels and spices.
Popes Rebellion 1680
Missionaries discovered a wealth of souls to be "harvested"for the Christian Religion. Their efforts to suppress Pueblo religious customs provoked an uprising called Pope's Rebellion.
Chesapeake region*
Tobacco
Sir Walter Raleigh
Is credited with introducing tobacco and the potato into England. Later beheaded for treason.
New Amsterdam
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William Bradford*
A leader of the pilgrims, William Bradford was a self-taught scholar who read Hebrew, Greek, Latin, French, and Dutch.
Barbados*
Sugar plantations in Barbados, and to export non-English products like wine, silk, and olive oil.
Pequot Indians*
Hostilities exploded in 1637 between the settlers and powerful Pequot tribe. In a brutal war the English militiamen virtually annihilated the Pequots.
Martin Luther and the Protestant Reformation*
Martin Luther was a Monk from Germany. When he nailed protests against Catholic doctrines on the door of Wittenberg's church in 1517, he unknowingly was shaping the destiny of a yet to be known nation. When he denounced the authority of the priests and popes, and claimed that the Bible and the Bible alone was the word of God, he ignited the "Protestant Reformation". This religious reformation traveled and stuck all across Europe causing division and conflict.
La Salle*
French had sent an expedition under Robert La Salle down the Mississippi River in the 1680s, the Spanish began around 1716 to establish a few weak settlements and missions in Texas, including the one at San Antonio later known as the Alamo.
Thomas Hooker & the Fundamental Orders*
Thomas Hooker, swarmed into the Connecticut area. In 1639 the settlers of the new Connecticut River colony drafted a trailblazing document known as the Fundamental Orders, which establish a regime controlled by the "substantial" citizens.
William Penn*
William Penn, a well-born and athletic young englishman, was attracted to the Quaker faith in 1660, when only sixteen years old. His father, disapproving administered a sound flogging. After various adventures in the army the youth finally embraced the despised faith and suffered much persecution. Finally in 1681, he managed to secure from the king an immense grant of fertile land that the king called the area Pennsylvania in honor of the father.
Portugal
Had major role in advancements in sea voyage navigation and also had a major role in exploration.
New Haven
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Mestizos*
People of mixed Indian and European heritage.
Francisco Pizarro *
Crushed the Incas of Peru in 1532 and added a huge horde of booty, especially silver, to Spanish coffers.
Pilgrims*
Pilgrims were mostly immigrants from Holland. They were increasingly beginning to worry about their children and the surroundings they were in being to influenced by the Dutch. The pilgrims crowded onto the mayflower, and spent sixty-five days at sea. Instead of arriving at their predetermined destination, they arrived at the rocky coast of New England in 1620, with a total of 102 people.
Lord of Proprietors
Carolina was formally created in 1670, after King Charles II granted eight of his court favorites, the Lords Proprietors, an expanse of wilderness ribboning across the continent to the Pacific.
Peru
In the northeastern woodlands, the Iroquois, inspired by their legendary leader Hiawatha, created in the sixteenth century perhaps the closest North American approximation to the great nation-states of mexico and Peru.
Treaty of Tordesillas 1494*
Spain secured its title to Columbus's discoveries in the Treaty of Tordesillas, dividing with Portugal the "heathen lands" of the New World.
Coronado
Ventured into territory that eventually became part of the United States.
England defeats Spanish Armada 1588
Philip II of Spain, used his imperial gains to amass an "invincible armada" for the invasion of England in 1588. Bu the English sea dogs inflicted heavy damage on the armada, and a devastating storm crippled the Spanish Ships (Protestant wind). This marked the end of Spain's imperial dream.
Enclosure and Primogeniture laws*
Enclosure: When the public land that the poor used to graze their animals and have their crops were divided and distributed to aristocrats. Primogeniture: decreed only eldest sons were eligible to inherit landed estates.
West Indies
The spanish and Portuguese were eager to outstrip each-other in the race to tap the wealth of the Indies.
1689 Dominion of New England (Sir Edmund Andros)
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Conquistadors*
Seeking both the glitter of gold and glory of God, Spanish conquistadores (conquerors) fanned out across the Caribbean and eventualy onto the mainland of the American continents.
Rhode Island
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Mayflower Compact 1620*
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Indentured Servants *
Form of debt bondage worker. Under a contract of an employer for a period of time usually three to seven years, in exchange for food, drink, clothing, lodging, and other necessities.
Proprietary Colonies*
Maryland, New York, Pennsylvania (William Penn, Quakers), Carolina, Georgia (James Oglethorpe)
Hernan Cortez*
Set sail from Cuba in 1519 with sixteen horses and several hundred men. Came to the Aztec empire, which ended up giving way to three centuries of Spanish rule. It speople suffered not only from armed conquest but from smallpox and other epidemics that burned through the Valley of Mexico. The temples were destryoed and they built Christian cathedrals of Mexico City. He brough his language, laws, customs, and religion, all of which proved adaptable to the peoples of Mexico. Also intermarried with them, creating a new distinct culture called mestizos.
House of Burgesses*
The London authorized the settlers to summon an assembly, known as the House of Burgesses. A momentous precedent was thus feebly established, for this assemblage was the first of many miniature parliaments to mushroom from the soil of America
Powahatan and Pocahontas
Indian chief, Powahatan, whose daughter was Pocahontas who "saved" John Smith by dramatically putting her head between his and the war clubs of his captors. Pocahontas became an intermediary between the Indians and the settlers, helping to preserve a shaky peace and provide needed food.
Printing Press
Introduced about 1450, facilitated the spread of scientific knowledge.
Duke of York*
Charles II granted his brother the Duke of York New Amsterdam, was was thereupon renamed New York in honor of the Duke of York. The Duke of York, was a strong English squadron appeared off the decrepit defenses of New Amsterdam. A fuming Peter Stuyvesant, short of all munitions except courage, was forced to surrender without firing a shot.
Protestant Work Ethic
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Spain
Separated with Portugal, secured its title to Columbus's discoveries. Spain became the dominant exploring and colonizing power of the 1500s. Seeking gold and the glory of God.
Lord de la Warr
New governor in Virginia. Ordered the settlers to stay in Jamestown, imposed a harsh military regime on the colony, and soon undertook aggressive military action against the Indians.
Late 1500s-depression in woolen trade
When economic hit the woolen trade in the late 1500s, thousands of unemployed farmers took to the roads, often ending up as beggars and paupers in cities like Bristol and London.
Mexico
The conquest of Mexico was engineered by Hernan Cortes, once he destroyed the Aztec empire, it made way for Mexico City.
Act of Toleration 1649
Lord Baltimore permitted unusual freedom of worship for his fellow Catholics and for Protestant settlers in Maryland. But when Protestants threatened to submerge the Catholics, the Catholic settlers sough legal guarantees for their religious practice in the famed Act of Toleration which was passed in 1649 by the local assembly.
Roger Williams*
Roger Williams fled to the Rhode Island area in 1643, where he built a Baptist Church. He established a complete freedom of religion even for Jews and Catholics, a degree of toleration far ahead of the other English settlements in the New World.
Lord Baltimore
Maryland--the second plantation colony but the fourth English colony to be planted was founded in 1634 by Lord Baltimore, of a prominent English Catholic Family. On a venture to create a refuge for his fellows Catholics, who were harshly persecuted in Protestant England.
Anne Hutchinson*-antinomianism
Mistress Hutchinson (1591-1643) held unorthodox views that challenged the authority of the clergy and the very integrity of the Puritan experiment in the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
West Africa
African gold, perhaps two-thirds of Europe's supply, crossed the Sahara on camelback, and tales may have reached Europe about the flourishing West African kingdom of Mali in the Niger River valley, with its impressive Islamic university at Timbuktu. Europeans had no direct access to sub-Saharan Africa until the Portuguese mariners began to creep down to the West African coast in the mid 15th century.
John Cabot*
English sent John Cabot to explore the northeastern coast of north America in 1497 and 1948.
Virginia Company of London
was intended for only a few years, after which its stockholders hoped to liquidate it for a profit. Received a charter from King James I for a settlement in the New Worl.
Congregationalists*
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John Rolf
A peace settlement ended the first Anglo-Powahatan War in 1614, sealed by the marriage of Pocahontas to the colonist John Rolf. Became the father of the tobacco industry and an economic savior of the Virginia colony.
James Oglethorpe
Georgia formally founded in 1733. The ablest of the founders was the dynamic soldier-statesman James Oglethorpe, who became keenly interested in prison reform after one of his friends did in a debtors' jail. Repelled Spanish attacks.
King James I
had assumed the English throne in 1603
Catholics VS Protestants*
Spain's reasoning for becoming enemies with Queen Elizabeth and England, was the fact that they were dominantly protestant. Catholics and Protestants has been against each from the beginning of this time. A heavy tide of protestant settlers in maryland threatened to submerge the Catholics, the Catholic settlers sought legal guarantees for their religious practice in the Act of Toleration.
Puritans*
The Puritans are divided into two separate groups. The more extreme purest puritans and the more moderate Puritans. The etreme side of the puritans is also known as the separatist. Moderate puritans yearned for the reformation of the Church, from the inside. But soon after that anti-Puritan groups and persecution began to rise. But a group of moderate Puritans were fearful of their freedom of religion, etc., so they sought out for some "security."
Henry VIII
The Protestant (Calvinism) doctrines were just sweeping across England as King Henry VIII was continuing to break away from the Catholic Church. This made himself the head of the church, and although Henry found himself content with the position he had come to uphold, english reformers sought a "total purification of English Christianity". As they grew unhappy they burned the pious zeal to see that the Church of England became wholly de-catholocized.
"Salutary neglect"*
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Queen Elizabeth/Francis Drake & Sea dogs*
Queen Elizabeth took reign of the English throne in 1558 as a Protestant. This solidified the break with the Roman Catholic Church. Motivated by Queen Elizabeth, English buccaneers swarmed out to plunder Spanish treasure ships and raid Spanish settlements. They are refereed to as
Squanto
Cultural accommodation of the English was facilitated by Squanto a Wampanoag nto, a who had learned English from the ship's captain who had kidnapped him some years earlier. The Wampanoag chieftain Massasoit signed a treaty with the Plymouth Pilgrims in 1621 and helped them celebrate the first Thanksgiving after the autumn harvests that same year.
Philadelphia
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Indigo*
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Savannah *
Pine-forested Georgia, with the harbor of Savannah nourishing its chief settlement, was formally founded in 1733. The last of the thirteen colonies. Savannah, like Charleston, was a melting-pot community that included German Lutherans and Scottish Highlanders among others.
Bible Commonwealth*
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Christopher Colombus*
Skilled Italian seafarer persuaded the Spanish monarchs to outfit him with three tiny ships. Columbus sailed westward into the oceanic unknown and after 6 weeks landed on an island in the Bahamas. But Colombus was absolutely certain that he had skirted the rim of the Indies. Columbus' discovery would eventually convulse four continents--Europe, Africa, and the two Americas.
Compass*
The mariner's compass, possibly borrowed from the Arabs, eliminated some of the uncertainties of travel.
Baptists*
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Salem
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Peter Stuyvesant*
Resenting the Swedish intrusion, the Dutch dispatched a small military expedition in 1655, led by the despotic director-general Peter Stuyvesant. The Swedish fort fell easily and the colony came to an abrupt end, leaving behind only a remnant of Swedish place names and Swedish log cabins as well as an admixture of Swedish blood.
Delaware River
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Quakers*
A remarkable group of dissenters, commonly known as Quakers, arose in England during the mid-1600s. Their name derived from the report that they "quaked" when touched deep religious emotion. Officially they were known as the Religious Society of Friends. Quakers were especially offensive to the authorities, both religious and civil. They refused to support the established Church of England with taxes.
Caribbean*
The Caribbean Island served as a staging are for the slave system that would take root elsewhere in British North America.
Charter Colonies*
The Virginia Company of London received a charter from King James I, the charter of the Virginia Company is a significant document in American history. It guaranteed to the overseas settlers the same rights of Englishmen that they would have enjoyed if they had stayed at home. This precious boon was gradually extended to the other English colonies.
John Winthrup*
An educated, well-to-do pillar of English society. A successful attorney and manor Lord in England. He eagerly accepted the offer to become the governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. He helped Massachusetts prosper, and the Bay colony quickly became the most vast and immensely influential of the new England outposts.
Captain John Smith
Intrepid young adventurer, taking over Jamestown in 1608, he whipped the gold-hungry colonists into line.
1643 New England Confederation
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Great Migration 1630
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New Sweden
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Ponce de Leon
Ventured into territory that eventually became part of the United States.
1675 - 76 King Philips War*
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Patroons*
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Bartholomeu Dias*
After years of cautious exploration, the Portuguese mariner Bartholomeu Dias finally rounded the southernmost tip of Africa in 1488.
Caravel*
About 1450, Portuguese mariners overcame obstacles by developing the caravel, a ship that could sail even with crossing winds.
Joint-Stock Company*
By the early 1600s the unsuccessful lone-wolf ventures of such countries were replaced by the joint-stock company, which allowed considerable number of investors to pool their capital.
Plymouth
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Jamestown*
The future for the United States, the English at jamestown, Virginia had been founded in 1607
John Calvin and Calvinism*
John Calvin of Geneva had elaborated on Martin Luther's doctrine that had impactfully affected the thoughts and character of Americans yet to be born. As a result Calvinism had become the primary theological credo. Calvinism also argued that "God was also all-knowing and since the first moment of creation had destined some souls--the elect--for eternal bliss and others for eternal torment. Good works could not save those whom predestination had marked for the internal fires."
De Soto
Ventured into territory that eventually became part of the United States.
Charlestown *
Named for King Charles II --rapidly became the busiest seaport in the South. Many high-spirited sons of English landed families, deprived of an inheritance, came to the Charleston area and gave it a rich aristocratic flavor. Religious toleration.
Predestination*
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Dutch East India Co. and Dutch West India Co.*
The Dutch Republic also became a leading colonial power through the activities of the enterprising Dutch Easy india Company. The company's vast riches came mostly from the Easy indies, where it maintained an enormous and profitable empire for over 300 years.
Royal Colonies*
Virginia 1624, Massachusetts 1691, New Hampshire 1679, North Carolina 1729, South Carolina 1729, New Jersey 1702, New York 1685, Georgia 1752.

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