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patho male reproductive disorders


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o GN stands for?
gonococcal urethritis
o NGU stands for?
nongonococcal urethritis
are there often signs for urethritis
often no signs at all IF sign are present they consist of o Watery, white or yellow, milky, or mucus-like drip from the penis o Burning or pain when you urinate o Swollen and tender o Itching or irritation around the opening of the penis
⬢ Urethral Stricture is what?
o Narrowing of urethral caused by scarring
o Phimosis
foreskin retracted and won’t go back
o Paraphimosis
foreskin retracted and won’t go forward
⬢ Peyronie Disease
Bent Nail Syndrome” o Pathophysiology  Fibrous thickening of fascia  Painful intercourse and erection  Associated with – diabetes, keloids  Remission in only 50%  Generally seen in middle aged men
⬢ Priapism
o Prolonged penile erection o Caused by spinal cord trauma, sickle cell, and pelvic disorder o Urological disorder o 50% of cases treated have erectile dysfunction
o Varicocele facts (not a question)
 “Bag of worms”  May cause infertility  Normally seen on the left side because of blood flow
cancer of the testes is not curable (true or false)
false. it is 95% curable
⬢ Epididymitis
o Sexually active males o Microorganisms travel by way of vas deferens for infective bladder or urethra o Inguinal pain o Edematous swelling causing urethral obstruction
⬢ Benign prostatic hyperplasia
o Benign prostatic hypertrophy o Enlargement of prostate gland o Compresses the urethra o 51% - age 60-69 have enlargement o 40-45 benign hyperplasia begins o Symptoms  Urge to urinate frequently  Delay in start of urination  Decrease force of urination  No way to reverse BPH  Surgery may be used to prevent complete urethral obstruction
⬢ Prostatitis
o Inflammation of the prostate gland o Characterized as:  Acute bacterial  Chronic bacterial  Nonbacterial
⬢ Prostate cancer is the number 1 cause of death in US males (true or false) is the number 2 leading cause.
what is the normal size of a prostate
causes,diagnosis, and symptoms of prostate cancer
 Risk factors – age  Common in men over 65 years  Genetics – Black American males: high and Japanese-American males : low  Environmental factors – smoking, high saturated fat diets o Symptoms  Usually none  Frequent urination at night  Diminished urine flow  Weak or interrupted flow  Burning and bleeding with urination  Blood in semen  Painful ejaculation  Frequent back pain and lower back hips or upper thighs o Diagnosis  Rectal palpation  Elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA)  Biopsy  Bone scan and x-ray
staging of prostate cancer
 Stage 1 – cannot be felt and causes not symptoms to small to felt during rectal exam  Stage 2 – tumor still located within the prostate but is large enough to be felt during rectal exam  Stage 3 – cancer cells have spread outside the prostate to surrounding tissues. Difficult urination  Stage 4 – cancer cells have spread to lymph nodes near and far from prostate such as bone and liver. Difficult urination, bone pain, weight loss and tiredness
treatment of prostate cancer
 Radiation therapy – exposing areas over a 6-7 week period  Removal  Hormonal treatment – oral estrogen medication, leuprolide (Lupron), surgical removal of testicle, Flutamide (Eulexin)  Chemotherapy – Suramin  Cryotherapy (freeze cells)

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