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Statistics Chapter 1 Vocab

Terms

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Statistics
is the science of collecting, organizing, analyzing, and interpreting data in order to make decisions.
Population
is the collection of all outcomes, responses, measurements, or counts that are of interest.
Sample
is the subset of a population
Parameter
is a numerical description of a population characteristic.
Stat
a numerical description of a sample characteristic.
Descriptive stat
is the branch of stats that involves the organization, summarization, and display of data.
Inferential stat
is the branch of stats that involves using a sample to draw conclusions about a population. A basic tool in the study of inferential stats is probability.
Qualitative data
consist of attributes, labels, or nonnumerical entries.
Quantitative data
consist of numerical measurements or counts.
Nominal level of measurement
are qualitative only. Data at this level are categorized using names, labels, or qualities. No mathematical computations can be made at this level.
Ordinal level of measurement
are qualitative or quantitative. Data at this level can be arranged in order, but differences between data entries are not meaningful.
Interval level of measurement
are quantitative. The data can be ordered, and you can calculate meaningful differences between data entries. At the interval level, a zero entry simply represents a position on a scale; the entry is not an inherent zero.
Ratio level of measurement
are similar to data at the interval level, with the added property that a zero entry is an inherent zero. A ratio of two data values can be formed so one data value can be expressed as a multiple of another.
Random sample
is one in which every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected.
Simple Random Sample
is a sample in which every possible sample of the same size has the same chance of being selected.
Stratified sample
is important for the sample to have members from each segment of the population
Cluster sample
When the population falls into naturally occurring subgroups, each having similar characteristics.
Systematic Sample
is a sample in which each member of the population is assigned a number.
Convenience sample
consists only on avaliable members of the population.
4 different ways of collecting data
Experiment, Simulation, Census, and Sampling

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