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Starred Items for EXAM 3


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Early settlers in Italy.
Knowledge is limited.
Women had more rights. Traditions borrowed by Rome:
-Roman arch and vault
-Gladitorial combat
-Dress and insignia of Kings
*purple bordered robe
*folding chair of ivory
-musical instruments
-Some Gods

When: 8th-5th centuries BC
Romulus and Remus
Who: Infant twins.
What: Raised by a female wolf after being abandoned by their parents.
Why: Myth about the founding of Rome probably drawn from the Etruscans.
Who: Etruscans taken by the Romans
What: The examination of entrials of sacrificial animals to tell the future.
Where: Italy
Struggle of Orders
Who: Patricians vs. Plebians
What: two-hundred-year struggle/ conflict between the plebeians and patricians.
Plebeians wanted equal rights and say. Went on strike during the war and refused to fight. Ended finally when all citizens were seen as equal all in Rome. It was a PEACEFUL COMPROMISE.
Where: Rome
When: end in 287
Who: The Aritocracy/ The States/ The Military
What: Had a monopoly on the Law and on Knowledge
Who:Some grown wealthy, but most were small holding farmers, merchants, or the urban poor.
What: Had many grievances, such as being forced to serve in the army, excluded from holding office, and victims of discriminatory decisions in judicial trials.
Where: Rome
Why: The patricians held most power and interpreted the law.
Law of the Twelve Tables
What: Codifies and Publishes the Law. A clear representation of what the Law was although it might not have gotten rid of enslavement from debt. The plebeians won the Struggle of Orders and the rights to marry Etruscans and to have representation in the Senate.
When:450 BC
Punic Wars
Who: Romans vs. Carthaginians
What: Fought for Dominance of W. Mediterranian.
First Punic War (264-241 BCE)
-centered on Sicily
-rome feels threatened
-rome victorious through peace agreement in 241 but with major loss.
Second Punic War (218-201 BC)
-Hannible, Carthaginian general
-Marches on Rome (w/ Elephants), unsuccesful
-Roman General, Scipio Africanus
-202 BCE Scipio defeats Hannible near carthage.
*controls the seas so hannible can't get reinforcements
*went to carthage so Hannible would have to go back.
Third Punic War (149-146 BCE)
-Scipio's grandson dystroys Carthage breaks through its wall
When: 264-146 BC
Who:Carthaginian commander.
What: Led Carthage in the Second Punic War. Had brilliant exploits, Rome barely slipped away from their clutches. Kept short of supplies and was worn down. Was defeated by Scipio at Zama near Carthage in 201 BC.
When: (c. 247-183 BC)
Tiberius Gracchus
Who: Aristocrat elected Tribune
What: Makes Land reforms- dividing public land among the poor. Made the Aristocats unhappy. Was murdered
Where: ROME
When: dies 133 BC
Who: Dictator of Rome
What: Victorious commander. Exterminated his opponents. Extended the powers of the Senate, curtailed authority of the tribunes. After three years retired to a life of luxury.
Where: ROME
When: 88 BC
1st Triumvirate
Who: Pompey, Crassus, Julius Caesar.
What: Was an alliance which turned in to an argument and Julius Caesar was victorious.
When: 60 BC
Julius Caesar
Who: Dictator of Rome
Conqured Spain and Gul
-gaines support, Senate lost abilities since Pompey didn't win rule.
-obtaimed almost complete power
- Was assisnated to prevent the rumors of him making himself King.
Where: ROME
When: 46-44 BC
Apollo of Veii
Who: Etruscans
What: Painted Tarracotta. Clothing and body underneath is noticable, in more movement, hairstylized, archaic smile crosses over, heavily painted
Where: From the roof of the Portonaccio Temple, Veii, Etruscans
When: c. 510-500 BC
Etruscan Sarcophagus
Who: Etruscans
What: Painted Taracotta, the archaic smile, Man and wife reclining together [naked] (never seen before). Reflected in realitive freedom for women. Their embrace emphasizes their marital bond.
Where: Italy
When: mid 4th century BC
Temple of Portunus
What: Was a road to the sea port, A clear front in contrast to Greek architechture, a High Podium, closed of sella, half collums attachet to cella, no sculpture on the roof, ionic collums with scroll at top.
Where: Rome
When: 2nd century BC
Roman noble with busts of ancestors.
Who: A Roman noble.
What: We see interest in the body and clothing. Person is shown of old age (perhaps to show wisdom and knowlege of the society) It was common to have busts made of ancestors and to parade them around on some occasions.
Where: Rome
When: 1st century BC
2nd Triumvirate
Who: Antony, Lepidus, Octavian
What: A civil war ensued and it ended in the defeat of Anthony and Cleopatra (BATTLE OF ACTIUM)
Where: Rome
When: 43 BC
Marc Antony
What: Was jealous of Octavian, and made an alliance w/ Cleopatra to fight against the West. Was defeated by Octavian and commited suicide.
When: c. 80-30 BC
What: Entered alliance w/ Antony which caused Egypt to lose its independent existense.
Where: Egypt
When: 69-30 BC
Augustus (Octavian)
*Princepts Civitatis
What: Becomes emperor, he rules with an iron fist, but maintains the senate to keep the republican features to appease the people.
Created a public image of himself by supporting literature and art.
Where: ROME
When: 63 BC- 14 AC
Battle of Actium
What: The defeat of the alliance between Antony and Cleopatra. Thus making Rome supreme through the Mediterranean world.
Where: Northwestern Greece
When: 31 BC
Pax Romana
What: "ROMAN PEACE"The period of peace in Rome after Octavian rule and during later rulers the Five Good Emperors.
What: The rule of four. Intended to provide more effective governance over the empire by permitting a degree of decentralization. His political reform which divided the Roman empire into two halves ruled by two rulers and two lieutenants.
Since the empired had now become too large for a single, all-powerful ruler to control effectively.
When: established 293 AD
Constantine the Great
Who: Diocletian's sucessor.
What: Transferred the imperial captial from Rome to the new city of Constantinople, beginning the west's decline. Was Christian.
When: 306-337 AD
Battle of the Milvian Bridge
Who: Constantine
What: Saw a christian symbol in the sky while preparing for battle at the Milvian Bridge and heard a heavenly voice declaring "In this sign conqure" Constantine ordered his soldiers to paint the symbol on their shields; the victory they won that day propelled him to the imperial throne.
When: 312 AD
Edict of Milan
Who: Constantine
What: Allowing Christianity toleration as a religion.
When: 313 AD
Council of Nicaea
Who: Constantine
What: He summoned and presided over this council, which condemned Arianism. Showed the states involvment in governance of the church.
Where: Constantiople
When: 325 BC
Augustus of Primaporta
Similar stance to the spearbearer.
Romans being Idealized.
Propagannist. Shows his
Youthful/buff body, and abundance that he brought to Rome. Emphasizing the peace that Augustus brought to Rome.
Like Classical Greece.
Ara Pacis of Augustus
Alter of Peace.
Was Augustus' statement of how he wanted his contemporaries and future generations to view his reign.
Temple for Augustus from the Senate.
The Classical Style- idealized, drappery shows interest in body, no real feeling or emotion.
Alter dedicated to the spirit of Peace.
Reliefs about Romes glorius past, abundance of land and rewards of agriculture.
Pont du Gard
Aqueduct Built c.16 BCE
An Amazing feet, brings water 30 miles.
The stones were put together w/o morter.
The top is for the water and the bottom is a bridge where people use to be able to walk.
Built by the Roman emperors between 75-80 BC as a place of entertainment (ie. gladitorial combats)
one of the largest public buildings.
A hugh concrete dome is open to the sky at the top (oculus) which is its only light source. As the sun moves across the sky its beam moves around the inner wall of the building, making the whole structure a symbol of the world.
Granite colums with Corinthian capitals

Build C.E. 126
Arch of Titus
C.E. 70
Commemorates the Roman capture of Jerusalem. Roman arches commemorated victories by successful genereals. This one celebrates the vixtory of Titus, the son of the reigning emperor Vespasian, over the Jews in CE 70, which saw the destruction of Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem.
Example of early Imperial arches.
Colossus of Constantine
The head.
The full statue stood in the Basilica of Constantine, ROME. It was made of marble w/ a height of 30 ft, the head was 8'6''ft. Massive and majestic simplicity.
His way of impressing his subjects.
Basilica of Constantine
Was immense. A central nave rising to 100 ft, that is now in ruins. This assembly hall in its day must have been a powerful reminder of the emperor's authority.

The northern side is still standing today. The brickwork that is visible today was originally hidden behind marble panels, both inside and out.

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