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to spay a cat where should you make your incision?
begin incision at middle third of caudal abdomen
why is spaying a cat different from dogs?
the body of the uterus is more caudal and more difficult to exteriorize
feline roundworm
Toxacara cati, leoni
feline hookworm
Ancylostoma tubaeforma
lungworm of cats
Aelurostrongylus abstrusus
stomach worm of cats
Ollulanus tricuspus
tapeworms of dogs and cats
Dipylidium caninum
Spirometra mansinoides
feline bile and pancreatic duct worm
Platynosomum concinnum
how is the cat infected with Platynosomum concinnum?
infected thru ingestion of infected lizards
coccidian of cats
Isospora felis and rivolta
Etiology of Ear Mites in cats
Otodectes cynotis
how is otitis externa different in dogs and cats?
ear mites are responsible for 50% of otitis externa in the cat (only 5-10% in the dog)
what prevents further infestation of ear mites in cats?
Many cats acquire an immune response that prevents further infestation
What are some Predisposing factors to ear mites?
1. Poor conformation – narrow ear canal, hair, floppy, heavy ears
2. Obstruction of canal from acute inflammation or tumor
3. Systemic dzs – Felv, FIV can predispose to otitis externa
why should you acess the tympanic membrane with an ear mite infection?
– lack of membrane may indicate middle ear dz
Best treatments for earmites in cats?
Revolution, Mitaclear, Acarexx or milbemycin oxime
Fungal cause of otitis externa
Malassezia most common
Treatment for a fungal agent causing otitis externa
Conofite or Tresaderm
Treatment for a bacterial agent causing otitis externa
Silver sulfadiazine
which of the antibiotics used for otitis externa is oto-toxic?
complication of otitis externa?
Otitis media
extra tx for otitis externa complicated by otitis media
systemic treatments
Aerobic agents of abcesses?
Pasteurella multocida, beta hemolytic strept, Bacteroides, Fusiform bacilli, Actinomyces
name the anaerobic causes of abcesses
Clostridium, Bacteroides, Peptostreptococci, Enterobacteria
How long does it take after initial injury for an abcess to occur?
2-4 days
Antibiotics used for abcesses caused by anaerobic bacteria
Clindamycin, amoxicillin, Chloramphenicol, Metronizadozole
Antibiotics used for abcesses caused by aerobic bacteria
Amoxicillin, Oxacillin, Cephalexin
Antibiotics used for abcesses caused by clostridium
high dose penicillin
what is the etiology for Feline rhinotracheitis virus
these two agents account for 85-90%of the feline upper respiratory infection complex
Rhino and calicivirus
how many feet can a virus travel to infect a cat with resp. dz?
4 ft
Most cats develop a carrier state after acute natural infection with what agents?
feline rhino, calicivirus and chlamidia
oropharyngeal vesicles or ulcers caused by resp viruses cause this Clinical sign?
use these antibiotics for secondary bacterial infections assoc with upper respiratory viruses
Ampicillin, Amoxi, Doxycycline, Chloramphenicol
what do you vax against to prevent upper resp inf?
Rhino and Calici virus only; Chlamidia is not recommended b/c of low incidence in single cat households
Flea Allergy dermatitis (FAD) is caused by?
Allergic reaction to bites inflicted by Ctenocephalides felis, Ctenocephalides canis, or Pulex irritans
what causes FAD?
Caused by hypersensitivity to allergens and haptens in flea saliva
immune response assoc by Hypersensitivity Type I
immune response assoc by Hypersensitivity Type IV
cell mediated immunity
what is the difference between the hypersensitivity rxn to fleas in the cat versus the dog?
Only immediate hypersensitivity has been reported in the cat (can have immediate and delayed in the dog)
where are the lesions located with FAD?
lesions over posterior one third of body
type of dermatitis on head and neck of cats assoc with FAD
Miliary dermatitis
Insect Development Inhibitor used to treat fleas
what can you give for pruritis assoc with FAD?
give Pred in decreasing doses then stop or continue at lowest effective dose
is ONLY effective tx for FAD
Strict flea eradication
viruses causing conjuncivitis in cats?
Rhino, Calicivirus
bacteria causing conjuncivitis in cats?
Gram positive cocci, coliforms, mycoplasma
MC foriegn body causing conjunctivitis in cats?
plant material
parasites causing conjuncivitis in cats?
Thelazia, Cuterebra, Dirofilaria
eyelid diseases causing conjunctivitis?
trichiasis, distichiasis, ectopic cilia, eyelid masses, tumors, chalazia
insults to the conjunctiva can cause these things?
induce vasodilation and neutrophilic/lymphocytic infiltrates
long term insult to the conjunctiva induces?
squamous metaplasia of epithelium, loss of conjunctival goblet cells, lymphocytic/plasmacytic infiltrates and lymphoid follicle formation
used to dx conjunctivits
Schirmers tear and fluroescein stain; obtain cultures before stain use
Differentials for conjunctivitis
sclertis, uveitis, glaucoma, keratitis
Antihistamines used with conjunctivitis
Antzoline or Naphazoline
Antzoline is this type of med?
H1 antagonist
Naphazoline is this type of med?
NSAIDS used for conjunctivitis?
Flurbiprofen, Suprofen, Diclofenac, Detorolac
– improves health of cornea and conjunctiva for KCS
Cyclosporin (Optimmune)
contraindicated in primary infectious conjunctivits or when corneal ulcer is present
should be used w/ caution in cats w/ conjunctivitis
Topical corticosteroids or NSAIDs
why should NSAIDS and steriods be used w/ caution in cats w/ conjunctivitis
b/c concerns about recrudescent feline herpesvirus
Bacteria Frequently isolated with cystitis
E coli, Staph intermedius, Strep, Proteus, Klebsiella or Pseudomonas
fungi Frequently isolated with cystitis
Torulopsis, Candida, Cryptococcus, Blastomyces, Aspergillus
MC way cystitis is caused
Ascending through the urethra is most common (but can also be descending or lymphatic in origin)
Predisposing factors for cystits include...
steroid tx, catheterization, sx alteration, uroliths, or outflow obstruction
sequele of cystitis
pyelonephritis, prostatitis, septicemia, struvites, granulomatous urethrocystitis, polyps, urinary incontinence or emphysematous cystitis
number of bacteria to dx cystitis
must be over 10^5 per mL to be detected in urine sediment
perform this prior to Ab therapy with cystitis
Urine culture and sensitivity
used to treat Gram + causes of cystitis
used to treat Gram - causes of cystitis
Fluroquinolones or sulfonamides
First time relapsing UTI: treat how?
4-6 weeks of Ab
treat Subsequent relapsing UTI for how long
6-8 weeks
used to treat fungal causes of cystitis
why do you use Flucytosine to treat fungal causes of cystits?
achieves high concentrations in urine
Culture urine after initiation of antibiotics in this amnt of time with cystitis?
Culture urine 3-5 days after initiation of Ab to ensure proper Ab selection
obtain urine culture by this method?
how to know if you have effectively treated cystitis?
Culture again 3-5 days after the drug is discontinued
How do you monitor for recurrent cystitis infections?
Culture every 3-6 months to monitor recurrent infections
Monitor theses pts that may have altered natural host defenses for development of UTI
persistent catheterization, steroid use, chemotherapy, diabetes mellitus, perineal urethrostomies
Idiopathic hematuria and dysuria in cats w/ith or without obstruction
Causes of Atypical UTI
fungal, Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma, parasitic
What are the recent trends in feline urotlithiasis?
1. Decreased struvide stones
2. Reduced frequency of recurrent urethral obstruction needing urethrostomies
3. Persistent inflammatory idiopathic dz regardless of dietary management
4. Increase in Ca oxalate stones
What is the possible viral cause of FLUTD
1. Feline syncytia-forming virus (FeSFV) – not been proven
2. Feline Herpes virus – experimental only
3. Feline calicivirus – perhaps due to calicivirus-like particles in urethral plugs
How common is bacteria as the cause of stones
RARE as the primary cause especially in younger cats

In older cats, bacterial UTI is more likely, especially in renal failure cats – up to 25%
What human dz is FLUTD similar
Intersititial cystitis
how is FLUTD in cats similar to Intersititial cystitis in humans?
1. Unknown etiology
2. Sterile urine
3. Hemorrhagic lesions visible on cystoscopy
4. Some microscopic changes in bladder mucosa
5. Increase mast cells in bladder
6. Decreased urinary GAGs
how is FLUTD in cats different from Intersititial cystitis in humans?
1. Persisitent, chronic infection in humans
2. Not usually associated w/ hematureia in women
what does the UA look like on FLUTD cats?
the UA has blood and is concentrated
signalment for FLUTD
- Young, adult cats 2- 6 years
- Males and females equally
- Neutered cats of both sexes seem to be at increased risk
Males are more likely to become obstructed with this in FLUTD
muco-crystalline plugs
time of year that FLUTD is increased risk with outdoor cats
what environmental reasons increase the risk for FLUTD?
--fat cats that are seditary
--dirty litterboxes cause the cat doesn't wanna pee or poop in dirty boxes so they hold it
--Water intake and urine volume
what diet predisposes cats to FLUTD
dry cat food because it has high magnesium
why is there an increased risk of FLUTD in cats with anxiety?
increase in mast cell and histamine release
what anatomic feature in the cat predisposes it to FLUTD?
Vescicourachal remnant or diverticuli may cause incomplete emptying of the bladder
- Most recover is 5-7 days regardless of treatment
- SQ fluids to males to avoid blockage
Contraindicated in cats w/ bacterial UIT or indwelling catheters
with FLUTD only use steroids if....
a. Obstruced cats w/ traumatic catheterization
b. Refractory non-bacterial LUTD w/ unhappy client
Used this drug with FLUTD:
Amitryptyline (Elavil)-Anti-anxiety drug that also is a a mild analgesic, sedative, antihistaminic & anticholinergic
side effects of amitryptyline
increased liver enzymes, wt gain, poor hair coat and urine retention
med used with FLUTD to decrease urethral spasms and therefore decrease pain
can give this med for pain assoc with FLUTD
can give this med for stress assoc with FLUTD
avoid these foods to prevent FLUTD
-Avoid food high in ash & mineral

- Avoid Fish
give this kind of food to prevent FLUTD
canned food
what is Pentosan polysulfate and why is it used with FLUTD?
Pentosan polysulfate is a synthetic polysaccharide that mimics or replaces GAG layer coating the bladder
what specifically does Pentosan polysulfate do?
a. helps prevent adherence of bacteria, crystals or proteins to bladder epithelia
b. limits the mucosal permeability to noxious substances in urine
Antispasmodic agents provide this with FLUTD?
- Symptomatic relief of pollakiruia, dysuria & stranguria
Anticholinergic that decrease the frequency of urination
Oxybutynin, not propantheline
Alpha antagonists that may minimize resistance in pre-prostatic and prostatic urethra
Phenoxybenzamine, Prazosin
primary adverse effect with Alpha antagonists
skeletal muscle relaxants used with FLUTD
Dantolene or diazepam
what does flushing the bladder with DMSO or cool saline do?
stimulate degranulation of mast cells and may ‘exhaust and flush’ sensory neuropeptides & inflammatory mediators
Avoid this when treating FLUTD
- Phenopyridine
- Methylene blue
- Urinary acidifiers
- Abs
spraying of urine occurs on this surface....
a vertical surface: if pee is on a horizontal surface the cat isn't spraying it is just pissing where it isn't supposed to
anti-anxiety meds that can decrease the incidence of spraying
Amitriptyline, Diazempam, Buspirone, Clomipramine, Megestrol acetate
MC behavior problem in cats
Second MC behavior problem in cats
technical name of declawing a cat
procedure performed to prevent retraction of P3
Tendonectomy of Deep digital flexor
Claw remains in retracted position b/c
dorsal elastic ligament
Dental Neck Lesions
feline odontoclastic resorptive lesions (FORL), cervical line lesions, feline caries
pathophys for FORL
abnormal odontoclast activity
what do FORL lesions look like?
appear as cavities in the teeth
Where do FORL lesions occur?
at or near the cemento-enamel junction arising from the gingival margin (gumline)
what causes a resorptive lacunae with FORL?
· Cavities are lined w/ odontoclasts which are constantly resorpting dental material by degrading dentine by decalcification
what is the normal function of odontoclasts?
The normal function of odontoclasts is to remove the roots of deciduous teeth as the permanent teeth erupt and hence the deciduous crown is lost
how does the lesion occur with FORL?
– these odontoclasts become reactivated by some stimulus - so it eats a hole in the tooth
what makes FORL lesions painful?
The process exposes the dentinal tubules which is extremely painful and granulation tissue proliferates from the gum over the lesion
what do FORL lesions invade
invades the enamel or cementum and even the pulp – the root can separate from the crown and the crown will be lost (probe thorugh the area where a root should be)
only effective treatment for FORL lesions?
what part of GI tract does Toxicara cati infest?
Small intestine of cats
3 modes of transmission of Toxicara cati
1. Direct – tracheal migration
2. Ingestion of parantenic host – somatic migration in parantenic host
3. Lactogenic (transmammary) – no migration
Ascarid of both cats and dogs
Toxacaris leonina
how is Toxacaris leonine different from T. cati?
Three Depths of Corneal Ulcers
1. Superficial erosion (corneal epithelium only)
2. Stromal ulcer – both epithelium and some stroma
3. Descemetocele – stroma down to Descemet’s membrane
virus that can case corneal ulcers
Feline Herpesvirus
eyelid diseases that can cause corneal ulcers
distichiasis, ectopic cilia, entropion
Feline herpes is assoc with what type of resp dz?
Upper respiratory disease
where does herpes stay latent at?
trigeminal ganglia and perhaps corneal cells
when latent herpes virus is reactivated by stress or topical steroids, what usually happens that is different from initial infection?
· When virus is reactivated by stress or topical steroids, signs of upper resp infection are usually absent
virus causing progressive polyarthritis
Feline Syncytium-forming Virus (FeSFV)
most cats with Feline Syncytium-forming Virus (FeSFV) also have...
FelV or FIV;
how does Feline Syncytium-forming Virus (FeSFV)cause arthritis?
from chronic antigenic stimulation and immune complex deposition
other causes of infectious polyarthritis?
calcivirus, mycoplasmosis
what causes Erosive polyarthritis (Feline chronic progressive polyarthritis)
– it is immune mediated:
deposition of immune complexes in the joint
how do you diagnose Erosive polyarthritis (Feline chronic progressive polyarthritis)
serology test for Rheumatoid factor (RF) is positive and NEGATIVE for Antinuclear Antibody (ANA)
MC cause of nonerosive polyarthritis?
systemic lupus erthematosus (SLE)
SLE has been assoc with...
diskospondylitis, enteropathy, bacterial endocardiits, and drugs
Type of Hypersensitivity Rxn with SLE?
Type III hypersensitivity reaction formation and deposition of immune complexes and autoantibody formation (dx via LE cells
Dx of SLE?
positive for ANA and negative for RF
what is a Trichobezoar
a hairball
what type of problem is feline acne?
Follicular problem –
where does feline acne MC occur?
cause of feline acne?
Plastic bowls: · Recommend owner to change feed bowls to stainless steel
Tx of Feline Acne
Abs (Enrofloxacin, Cephalexin, Tetracycline), Retin A, topical shampoos, Listerine, malacetic wet wipes
CS include vomiting, anorexia, large or small animal D+, enterocolitis
Inflammatory Bowel Dz
induces an infectious enteritis and mesenteric lymphadeopathy
Feline panleukopenia (feline distemper, feline parvovirus)
– eosinophilic infiltrates in multiple organs
Hyperesosinophilic syndrome of cats
Hyperesosinophilic syndrome of cats from neoplasia?
mature eosinophils differentiates from neoplasia
Type of hypersensitivity with food allergies that occurs within minutes to hours after ingestion
Type I hypersensitivity – within minutes to hours after ingestion
Type of hypersensitivity with food allergies that occurs within hours to days of ingestion
Type IV hypersensitivty delayed w/in hours to days of ingestion
offending allergen in 50% of cats w/ food allergy
type of collitis with food allergies in cats?
lymphocytic plasmacytic colitis
food allergy dermatitis won't respond to this tx?
Lack of response to steroids or other anti-inflammatories
tx for severe pruitis assoc with food allergy dermatitis?
virus induced Cardiomyopathy in cats?
Restrictive Cardiomyopathy
MC cardiomyopathy in cats?
deficiency assoc with DCM in cats?
CS assoc with HCM in cats
Middle aged, male cats
Pleural effusion (right sided heart failure)
Heart murmurs
Gallop thyrthm or other arrhythmias
MM are pale and muddy
Easily stressed and fragile
Thrombosis – blood can clot, turbulent flow causing paralysis of rear legs
what dz should you rule out in cats with HCM
heart shape with HCM?
Biatrial enlargement – ‘Valentine shaped heart’
seen on ECHO with HCM?
a. Very thick papillary muscles
b. Biatrial enlargement – ‘Valentine shaped heart’
c. Endocardial fibrosis
d. Left outflow obstruction
e. SAMMS – HOCM – seen w/ thick, venticular contraction
is HCM a diastolic or systolic dysfunction?
diastolic dysfunction
Need to slow down w/ b blockers or Ca channel blockers
drug that is contraindicated with HCM
an ionotrope like digoxin
used to slow the heart down with HCM
a. Atenolol - b
b. Diltiazem - Ca
c. Enalapril – ACE inhibitor
d. Aspirin – prevents thromoembolism
don't use these two cardio drugs at the same time?
b blockers or Ca blockers
MC cause of Interstitial Nephritis in all animals?
3 infectious agents causing interstitial nephritis in any species
1. Lepto
2. E. coli
3. EIA
E. coli causes what kidney dz in calves
white spotted kidney dz in calves
Type of Lepto in cattle and pigs?
L. pomona in cattle and pigs
Type of Lepto in dogs?
L. canicola & icterohemorrhagica in dogs
Explain the pathophys of how Lepto causes interstitial nephritis.
Lepto causes bacteremia, bacteria migrate out of vessels into lumen of tubules and replicate; reinfect epithelial cells and cause lymphocytic plasmacytic inflammation to antigens of lepto. Antiges die in tubular epithelial cells
Cats with this disease should be evaluated for hyperthyroidism...
MC (95%) cause of hyperthyroid in a cat....
Hyperplastic Thyroid
(Benign Thyroid Adenoma)
Less common (5%) cause of hyperthyroidism...
Malignant Thyroid Adenocarcinomas
Cardio CS assoc with Hyperthyroidism in cats?
Tachycardia & heart murmur (gallop rhythm)
Clin path with hyperthyroidism
Increased Liver Enzymes
Increase PCV
What 3 things will you see on a ECG in cats with hyperthyroidism?
1. Sinus tachycardia (> 240 bpm)
2. Increased R wave (ventricular concentric hypertrophy)
3. Atrial premature complexes
Best tests to diagnose Hyperthyroidism?
T3 Suppression Test
Why not just measure T3 to dx hyperthyroidism?
T3 is usually elevated anyway
Why may T4 levels not give you the results you want in suspected hyperthyroidism?
they fluctuate a lot
What are three cons of a thyroidectomy to tx hyperthyroidism?
1.Patients are an increased anesthetic risk
2. Iatrogenic hypoparathyroidism (accidently take out parathyroid)
3. Hyperthyroidism can reoccur – take out capsule, too and leave 1 of the parathyroids
What are some antithyroid meds that can be used to treat hyperthyroidism?
1. Tapazol: Methimazole
2. Propylthioouracil (PTU)
how do antithyroid drugs work to tx hyperthyroidism?
Not cytotoxic but block thyroid hormone synthesis
Best, Easiest and safest way to treat hyperthyroidism, but is expensive
Radioactive Iodine
if radioactive iodine doesn't work to reduce T4 levels in hyperthyroidism, then what does the cat probably have?
thyroid carcinoma
MC uroliths in cats and dogs?
Struvite (Mg ammonium)
How can UTI's cause struvite uroliths?
UTIs w/ urease producing bacteria (Staph, Proeus, Ureaplasma) can cause struvites by increasing the amount of ammonium ions and alkalinizing the urine
if clin path shows Hypercalcemia or acidosis then you probably have this type of urolith?
Ca oxalate or Ca phosphate calculi
if alkaline urine then you probably have this type of urolith?
if in neutral to acid urine then you probably have this type of urolith?
Ammonium urate and Silica
this urolith occurs in acid urine
Cystine calculi
this urolith can occur at any pH
Ca oxalate
often assoc with UTI's
Most common emergency seen in male cats
Urinary Obstruction
blood gases with urinary obstruction shows a.....
metabolic acidosis
electrolytes with urinary obstruction show...
why is hyperkalemia harmful?
Hyperkalemia causing life-threatening arrhythmias due to automaticity of SA node
what do calcium levels do in an obstructed cat?
hypocalcemia w/o clinical signs b/c phosphorus is so high, so Ca shifts down
Clin Path with urinary obstruction
Increased PCV & TP
Increased Glucose
Increased BUN
type of azotemia with urinary obstruction
post renal azotemia
What is the first step in manageing a sick obstructed cat?
take care of the heart and monitor the hyperkalemia
fluids used with obstructed cat because have little potassium?
Lactated Ringers or Normasol R
fluids to use if severe hyperkalemia from obstruction
0.45% NaCl with 2.5% Dextrose with 1 mEq/kg of Sodium Bicarb (NaHCO3)
three things used to treat hyperkalemia
1. Insulin and Dextrose
2. Calcium Gluconate
3. Sodium Bicarb
why is dextrose used in hyperkalemia?
shifts K+ into the cell
(glucose pulls potassium out of the blood and into the cell with it)
used to protect the heart in hyperkalemia
Calcium Gluconate
What does the sodium bicarb do?
corrects the acidemia: this will drive the potassium back into the cells
Step 2 in treating an obstructed cat?
Anesitize the cat
good induction for obstructed cat?
Step 3 in treating an obstructed cat?
Remove the obstruction
in trying to relieve the obstruction, what do you do?
first try to pass a catheter-
try to flush stones back into bladder-
what do you do if the blockage won't pass?
do a cystocentesis to empty the bladder: only do one stick: use a stop cock for continual removal
what can be used to reduce urethral spasms
Dex plus lidocaine
Step 4 in managing an obstructed cat?
flush bladder and attach closed drainage system
how long should you leave the urinary catheter in the cat?
Leave in place until urine is clear and cat is no longer azotemic
what occurs after diuresis in cats treated for obstruction?
Hypokalemia – develops due to solute diuresis
what should you add to fluids once potassium levels are normal?
Add 20 mEq KCl to each liter
Monitor these clin path levels after tx an obstructed cat
Monitor Na, K, Ca, P, BUN, CREA, PCV & TP
why must you taper the cat off fluids?
Must taper off fluids to prevent medullary washout
what 4 things do you see with hypokalemia?
1. Ileus
2. Muscle weakness – plantograde stance
3. Cervico flexion of the neck
4. Respiratory paralysis b/c diaphragm doesn’t work
if a cat reblocks three times what should you do?
perineal urethrostomy
hypophosphotemia can cause these two things...
HEMOLYSIS and muscle weakness
stones are in the bladder and kidneys (not urethra)
calcium oxalate
Associated w/ chronic airway inflammation and airway hyper-reactivity
Feline Asthma
what type of airway obstruction does feline asthma cause?
A lower airway obstruction
The difference between allergic bronchitis (found in dogs) and bronchial asthma in cats is...
a. Allergic bronchitis – large number of eosinophils in tracheobronchial secretion (seen in dogs); is a Type I hypersensitivity
b. Asthma is acute, spontaneous bronchoconstriction
pathophys of feline asthma...
The bronchial smooth muscle hypercontracts in response to multiple stimuli inducing hypersecretion of mucus and submucosa edema causing generalized small airway obstruction
Immune system reponse with Feline Asthma...
IgE antigen links w/ Ab fixed to mast cells
mediators causing direct bronchoconstriction in feline asthma...
histamine, serotonin, PAF, trhomboxane A2, leukotriences and oxygen radicals
breed predisposition for Feline Asthma?
Indicates a grave prognosis with feline asthma
Wheezes and/or crackles on auscultation
CS with feline asthma
sudden onset of expiratory effort and wheezing
See on rads with feline asthma
at the END of expiration show peribronchial cuffing
initial treatment for feline asthma
Bronchodilators – Terbutaline

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