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PSYC 220 Exam 1


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myasthenia gravis
auto-immune disease (body decides to attack something that it actually needs) of acetylcholine receptors
increases/mimics NT; promote formation; promote release; stimulate receptors; block breakdown of NT
blocks effects of NT; block formation; block release; block receptors
small cells; don't carry info long distances like neurons, but do exchange chemical info; eg. astrocytes (radial glia), oligodendrocytes, Schwann cells, microglia
Schwann cell
type of glia; myelination
type of glia; help with chemical exchange at presynaptic terminals
type of glia; clean up waste; act as immune system
type of glia; help with neuron migration
radial glia
type of glia; help with myelination
part of midbrain (mesencephalon); contains NT dopamine
substantia nigra
part of forebrain (prosencephelon) and diencephalon (along with thalamus); if damaged, can alter behavior such as drinking, temp regulation, and sexual behavior
part of forebrain (prosencephalon); processes sensory info (other than olfactory/smell) and sends to cerebral cortex
where cell bodies of sensory neurons are located (outside the brain and spinal cord)
dorsal root ganglia
Nernst Equation
can predict voltage in and out of axon; variables: voltage, concentration of ion inside, con of ion outside
in center of brain; links info from one side of brain to the other
corpus callosum
IPSP (inhibitory postsynaptic potential)
temporary hyperpolarization; K leaves or Cl enters
EPSP (excitatory postsynaptic potential)
temporary deploarization; Na enters cell
disease caused by toxic gain of function; sensitivity to glutamate so cell (in basal ganglia) wears out and disappears
Huntington's Chorea
Parkinson's Disease
dopamine dies out
in peripheral nervous system, activates muscles, and is a major neurotransmitter in the autonomic nervous system
chief inhibitory NT in CNS; IPSP
chief excitatory NT in CNS; EPSP
ionotropic effects
NT acts as a password to open a channel
metabotropic effects
slower & longer; NT attaches, bends receptor, G-protein released, second messenger (cyclic AMP) sent to communicate in larger areas of cell
Fritsch & Hitzig
test if electricity stimulates the brain (c. 1900); find that brain controls behavior (in middle part); front part had no result (memories); back part showed visual triggers
John Flynn
tested hypothalamus with a microelectrode; found replicable behavior
Wilder Penfield
studied epilepsy; tried to find locus/focus by stimulating parts of bring to find aura that occurs just before seizure
side of brain for language recognition
Side of brain for face recognition
people who believe that the brain=mind
people who believe the mind and physical brain to be seperate
read DNA and translate into/produce proteins
form the "skeleton" of the skull; little filled and unfilled tubes
Frans Nissl
invented the __last_name__ Stain; stain RNA and follow neuron development
endoplasmic reticulum
network of thin tubes to transport newly formed proteins; part of cell structure eg.mitochondria, ribosomes...
receivers of info for a cell; have branches with spines; bumpy
distribute info to other cells; long (not local) with right angles; have branches (collateral)
axon hillock
swelling where axon meets soma
dye used to trace going from axon terminal and back into the cell body
retrograde tracer
dye used to trace motion from brain and into dendrites
antrograde tracer
Hodgkins and Huxley (1963)
tried to detect if we work by electric current; use giant squid axon to detect difference in voltage inside and outside; saw relatively negative resting potential and then positive charge in axon at action potential (when stimulated)
when a compound divides into two ions eg. NaCl goes to Na+ and Cl-
Cl- more outside of cell (think: to make more neg., K+ leaves or Cl- enters cell)
sodium potassium pump
3Na out, 2K in; one more neg. each time To maintain resting potential and the electric gradient Use a lot of energy

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