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Pscyh. chp.2


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Schwann Cells
Speeding Up Message Transmission
Multiple Sclerosis:
Autoimmune disease that attacks myelin.
Resting Potential.
When your neuron is not sending a electrical signal it is at rest.
Excitation Threshold
When this –55 mv threshold is met, very dramatic changes are triggered within the neuron.
Action Potential
The inside of the axon quickly moves from –55 mv  + 30 mv Once it reaches +30 mv, the axon starts pumping out Na+ The axon quickly returns to –70 mv (the resting potential)
All or None Law:
The neuron either fires or it doesn’t
means that one Action Potential causes the next Action Potential
Communication between neurons
When the electrical signal reaches the end of the axon, the axon terminals are told to release a chemical message. This chemical message is called a neurotransmitter because it transmits its message from one neuron to the next neuron.
Making Motion Possible Found in all motor neurons and causes muscles to contract.
A Jack of All Trades* Pleasure Principle From Pleasure to Addiction
Parkinson’s Disease:
“Too Little” Dopamine Parkinson’s is characterized by… Rigidity in movement. Muscle tremors Poor Balance Difficulty initiating movements. The cause of Parkinson’s Disease: The killing off of dopamine producing neurons within the brain.
“Too Little” Serotonin Depression is characterized by… Feeling Hopeless* Feeling Worthlessness* Trouble Sleeping Loss of Appetite Trouble Concentrating
Monoamine Oxidase is an enzyme that breaks down a # of neurotransmitters (including serotonin).
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor
The process of returning the neurotransmitter to the presynaptic membrane (to be reused later)
Bodily and Psychological Arousal A drug the increases the release of norepinephrine.
Internally Produced Morphine*
A chemical message sent from one gland to another. This chemical message travels through your bloodstream
A chemical message sent from one neuron to another. This chemical message travels within the gap between neurons
Describing physical structures of the Brain.
Understanding the purpose or function of those structures
Studying the Brain:
Lesions: Destroy (usually by cutting) Ablations: Remove (with vacuum or scalpel) Transecting: Cutting neural pathways between different parts of the brain
Random Selection:
Every member of the larger group has an equal chance of being selected.
Representative Samples:
Small groups that match the larger population on relevant characteristics (e.g., age, sex, SES, etc..)
Correlation Studies:
examine how strongly 2 variables are related to each other.
Sample of Convenience:
Use the most representative sample you have at your disposal and hope that it closely resembles the population at large
Positive Correlation
There is a direct relationship between the 2 variables.
Negative Correlation
There is an indirect relationship between the 2 variables.
Correlations can vary form -1 to +1 The closer you are to ± 1 the stronger the correlation.
Confounding Variables:
The relationship between 2 variables may actually be the result of a third unmeasured variable (i.e., a confounding variable).
Experimental Condition:
Participants exposed to the “treatment”.
Control Condition:
Participants not exposed to the “treatment”.
Independent Variable
Controlled by Experimenter
Dependent Variable
Measured by Experimenter (not controlled).
T-test (t):
Checks to see if differences between 2 means is significant.
F-test (F):
Checks to see if differences between 3 or more means is significant.
Confidentiality and Anonymity
There should be no way to link participants responses to their name or person.
Cerebral Cortex
Four Lobes - Strategic Planning - Flexibility through integration
Limbic System
- Thalamus - Hypothalamus -Amygdala - Hippocampus
Relay station for sensory and motor information.
Motivated Behavior (3 Fs: Food, Fighting and Fornication) “Master Gland” – regulates the endocrine system
Emotional Response (especially fear) Emotional Memory (mostly helps you learn what to avoid)
Formation of New Memories Neurogenesis – Formation of new neurons
The Hindbrain:
Connects the spinal cord with the rest of the brain Consists of 3 Parts - Medulla - Pons - Cerebellum
Wernicke’s Aphasia:
I don’t understand you, that’s why you don’t understand me.
Broca’s Aphasia:
I understand you I just can\'t answer the question.
A language disorder characterized by partial or complete inability to⬦comprehend or produce language
Corpus Callosum:
Connects the two hemispheres and allows them to communicate with each other.
Neurological disorder that causes erratic neurological activation across the brain.
Contralateral Control:
Left hemishere controls the right half of the body.. right hemisphere controls the left.

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