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CH 1 Anatomy


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Describes structures of the body
Study of functions of anatomical structures
Examines large visible structures; Macroscopic Anatomy
Gross Anatomy
Examines cells and their structures
Microscopic Anatomy
Study of cells
Word meaning cell
Study of tissues and their structures
Smallest chemical unit
Groups of atoms working together
Smallest unit of life
Group of similar cells that work together
Group of different tissues working together
Major organs of the Integumentary System
Skin; Hair; Sweat Glands; Nails
Functions of the Integumentary System
Protects against environmental hazards; Regulate body temp; Provides sensory info; Vitamin D production
Major organs of the Skeletal System
Bones; Cartilages; Ligaments; Bone Marrow
Functions of the Skeletal System
Support and protect; Stores calcium/minerals; Forms blood cells
Red blood marrow
Major organs of the Muscular System
Skeletal muscles and tendons
Functions of the Muscular System
Movement; Protection/support; Generates heat that maintains body temp
Major organs of the Nervous System
Brain; Spinal Cord; Peripheral Nerves; Sense Organs
Functions of the Nervous System
To direct immediate responses to stimuli; Provide/interprets info about external conditions; Coordinates/moderates activities of other systems.
Major organs of the Endocrine System
Pituitary gland, Thyroid gland, Pancreas, Suprarenal gland, Gonad, Other endocrine tissues.
Functions of the Endocrine System
Directs long term changes in the activities of other organ systems; Adjusts metabolic activity and energy used by the body; Controls many structural and functional changes during development
Major organs of the Cardiovascular System
Heart; blood; blood vessels
Functions of the Cardiovascular System
Distributes blood cells, H2O, dissolving materials (nutrients, waste products, O2, CO2); Distributes heat; Assists in control of body temp
Major organs of the Lymphatic System
Spleen, Thymus, Lymphatic vessels, Lymph nodes, Tonsils
Functions of the Lymphatic System
Defends against infections/disease; Returns tissue fluids to the bloodstream
Major organs of the Respiratory System
Nasal cavities, Sinuses, Larynx, Trachea, Bronchi, Lungs, Alveoli
Functions of the Respiratory System
Delivers air to alveoli; Provies O2 to blood; Removes O2 from blood; Produces sound for communication
Major organs of the Digestive System
Teeth, Tongue, Pharynx, Esophagus, Stomach, Sm. Intestine, Lg Intestine, Liver, Gall Bladder, Pancreas
Functions of the Digestive System
Process/digest food; Absorbs water/nutrients; Stores energy
Major organs of the Urinary System
Kidneys, Ureters, Urinary Bladder, Urethra
Functions of the Urinary System
Excretes waste products from blood; Controls H2O balance, Stores urine, Regulates blood ion/pH concentrations
Major organs of Male Reproduction System
Testes, Epididymides, Ductus Deferens, Seminal Vessicles, Prostate Gland, Penis, Scrotum
Functions of the Male Reproduction System
Produce male sex cells; Sexual intercourse
Major organs of the Female Reproduction System
Ovaries, Uterine Tubes, Uterus, Vagina, Labia, Clitoris, Mammary Glands
Functions of the Female Reproductive System
Produce oocytes; Support developing embryo; Provide milk; Sexual Intercourse
All body systems working together to maintain a stable internal environment
Normal range for Blood Glucose Levels
70-110 mg/dl
Auto response in a cell, tissue, or organ to some environmental change AKA Intrinsic Regulation
Responses controlled by nervous and endocrine systems
Extrinsic Regulation
Receives the stimuli
Processes the signal and sends instructions
Control Center
Carries out instructions
Roles of Negative Feedback
1. Response of the effector negates the stimulus 2. Body is brought back into homeostasis 3. Normal range is achieved
Positive Feedback
1. Response to the effector increases change of the stimulus 2. Body is moved away from homeostasis 3. Normal range is lost 4. Used to speed up processes
Anatomical Position
Hands at sides, palms forward
Lying down, face up
Lying down, face down
References to palpable structures
Anatomical Landmarks
This plane slices an object down the middle, making left and right halves
Sagittal Plane
This is also called the coronal plane, this plane splits an object into a front and back half
Frontal Plane
This plane divides the body into an upper/lower half
Transverse Plane
Meaning: Above
Meaning: Below
Toward the midline of the body
Away from the midline of the body
Nearer to the trunk of the body or point of attachment
Farther from the trunk or point of attachment
Toward the body surface
Away from the body surface
Toward the front
Toward the back
Same sides
Opposite sides
Imaginary flat surface that passes through the body
One of the 2 surfaces that results when the body is cut by a plane passing through it
Plane passing through midline and cutting right/left sides
Midsagittal Plane
Plane cuts parallel to midsagittal line separates body into right/left portions of unequal size
Parasagittal Plane
Computerized Tomography
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Purposes of Body Cavities
Protects organs from accidental shocks; Permit changes in size shape of internal organs
Divided by the diaphragm; consists of thoracic and abdominopelvic cavity
Ventral Body Cavity
Consists of Pleural and Pericardial cavities
Thoracic Cavity
Consists of Periotoneal, Abdominal, and Pelvic cavities
Abdominopelvic Cavity
Central region between lungs; contains trachea, esophagus, major vessels; housed in Thoracic cavity
Contains many digestive glands/organs
Abdominal Cavity
Contains urinary bladder, reproductive organs, last portion of digestive tract
Pelvic Cavity
Lines cavity walls/covers organs
Serous Membranes
Lines cavity wall
Covers organs
Area posterior to parietal peritoneum and anterior to muscular body wall
Retroperitoneal Cavity

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