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SS STUDY GUIDE INDO EURO. AND HINDUISM

Terms

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Dharma
is a person's duty. Each person has a specific dharma based on his/her caste, age, family, or family position. One must follow his/her dharma. If one follows his/her dharma, that person will build up good karma. Good karma will eventually lead to moksha, or a person's atman being released.
Hittites
a group of Indo-European speakers who occupied Anatolia (Asia Minor)
Hittites spoke...
Indo-European language with each other, but Akkadian for international use
Rig Veda
the most important of the Vedas
What is a person's caste a measurement of?
It is a measurement of a person's religious purity.
Anatolia
a huge peninsula in modern-day Turkey that juts out into Black and Mediterranean Seas
Indo-Europeans
were a group of semi nomadic peoples who came from the steppes
Why did the Hittites use iron?
-stronger than bronze. They smelted the iron and hardened it into weapons
Legal code of Hittites
similar to Hammurabi's code, but more forgiving
Mahabharata
epic of India that reflects the struggles that took place in India as the Aryans moved south. It is the longest poem in the world with 106,000 verses. The hero of the poem is named Krishna.
Disadvantages of caste
unequal treatment, barriers between classes, cannot change caste (rarely), restrictions, rooted in caste, tensions between castes
Why was chariot used in battle by Hittites?
-was light and easy to maneuver at high speeds
Brahman
(the Hindu concept of God) Hindus believe that God is all that is, but is also all that is not, as well. It is everything in the universe.
Indo-European languages were ancestors of...
English, Spanish, Persian, and Hindi
Aryans
group of Indo-Europeans who crossed over the northwest mountain passes into the Indus-River Valley of India in about 1500 B.C.
Name the castes.
Brahmins (priest), Kshatriya (warrior), Vaishya (farmers), Shudras (servants), Untouchables (out of caste)
Migrations
movement of people from one region to another. Aryans migrated into India by means of the Hindu Kush mountains
Hittites wanted control of...
Northern Syria, like Egypt.
Caste
name for social system renamed by Portugese explorers. It is a social community.
caucasus
mountains between the Black and Caspian Seas.
What Kingdom of the Aryans arose from arguments among kings?
Magadha
What types of gods did Aryans worship?
Nature gods
Samsara
It is rebirth. A person's atman takes part in samsara. It is the basis of the Hindu religion. The form one is reborn into is determined by one's karma.
Karma
the factor that determines the form in which you will be born into in your next existence. It is the sum of your actions in a lifetime. Your actions must follow your dharma. Karma is built up over generations.
Moksha
is "oneness with God". A person's obtaining moksha is what a man should devote the second half of his life to. It is the end of the cycle of reincarnation. Moksha is a person's spiritual release to God. Reaching moksha is the ultimate goal to a Hindu.
Vedas
four collections of prayers, magical spells, and instructions for performing rituals that the Aryans held as sacred.
Advantages of Caste
Distribution of jobs, strength of communities, Traditions continued, Non-violent society, Not based on wealth, promotes morals, prevents rebellion, great for the upper caste
Atman
The soul of a person. A person's atman never dies, though a person may die. It is a life force, and all life is sacred. With every rebirth, or samsara, a person's atman takes on a new form.
Maya
the mistaken belief that lesser things are real. It means "illusion". Everyday life is just an illusion, according to the Hindus. One must look past the material illusions of everyday life and must look to the one divine mystery of God instead.
steppe
dry grasslands that stretched north of the caucausus

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