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AP Language and Composition Schemes and Tropes


undefined, object
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[REPETITION] repetition of the same word or words at the beginning of successive phrases, clauses, or sentences "Slowly and grimly they advanced, not knowing what lay ahead, not knowing what they would find at the top of the hill, not knowing that they were so near to Disneyland"
[TROPHE - UNDERSTATEMENT] Strengthening or weakening a statement by denying its opposite. "He was no ordinary John Doe " ie he was an extraordinary John Doe"
[TROPHE - WORDPLAY] The use of one part of speech as another part of speech. "all that roam the wood,/or wing the sky"
[REPETITION] similar vowel sounds repeated in successive or proximate words containing different consonants "A City that is set on a hill cannot be hid"
[ADDITION] emphasizes something by pointedly seeming to pass over, ignore, or deny it. "If you were not my father, I would say you were perverse"
[TROPHE - OVERSTATEMENT] overstatement, exaggeration "I've been waiting for ages" "This stuff is used motor oil compared to the coffee you make, my love."
[REPETITION] repeats the beginning word of a clause or sentence at the end, attracts interest to that word. [yes, but] "Our eyes saw it, but we could not believe our eyes"
[OMISSION] omitting conjunctions between words, phrases, or clauses. In a list of items, asyndeton gives the effect of unpremeditated multiplicity, of an extemporaneous rather than a labored account "They spent the day wondering, searching, thinking, understanding. "
[INTERRUPTION] a word, phrase, or whole sentence inserted as an aside in the middle of another sentence with parentheses or double dashes [more strong]." But in whatever respect anyone else is bold (I speak in foolishness), I am just as bold myself"
[BALANCE] establishes a clear, contrasting relationship between two ideas by joining them together or juxtaposing them, often in parallel structure. "That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind." "Success makes men proud; failure makes them wise"
[QUESTIONING] raising one or more questions and then proceeding to answer them, usually at some length. A common usage is to ask the question at the beginning of a paragraph and then use that paragraph to answer it "But what was the result of this move on the steel industry? The annual reports for that year clearly indicate"
[INTERRUPTION] a noun or noun substitute placed next to (in apposition to) another noun to be described or defined by the appositive. "Henry Jameson, the boss of the operation, always wore a red baseball cap. " "A notorious annual feast, the picnic was well attended"
[REPETITION] repetition of one word (for emphasis): What do you see? Wires, wires, everywhere wires.
[TROPHE - COMPARISON] very similar to synecdoche (and, in fact, some rhetoricians do not distinguish between the two), in which the thing chosen for the metaphorical image is closely associated with (but not an actual part of) the subject with which it is to be compared "The orders came directly from the White House" "The land belongs to the crown"
[CONNECTIONS] When a single noun or verb governs multiple parts of a sentence. "Pride opresseth humility; hatred love; cruelty compassion." "Fluffy rolled on her back, raised her paws, and meowed to be petted."
[TROPHE - COMPARISON] A comparison of one thing with another thing, often (but not always) using like or as. "My love is like a red, red wheel barrow."
[REPETITION] arranging words, clauses, or sentences in the order of increasing importance, weight, or emphasis "The concerto was applauded at the house of Baron von Schnooty, it was praised highly at court, it was voted best concerto of the year by the Academy, it was considered by Mozart the highlight of his career, and it has become known today as the best concerto in the world."
[TROPHE - COMPARISON] metaphorically represents an animal or inanimate object as having human attributes--attributes of form, character, feelings, behavior, and so on. Ideas and abstractions can also be personified. "The ship began to creak and protest as it struggled against the rising sea.
[BALANCE] "reverse parallelism," since the second part of a grammatical construction is balanced or paralleled by the first part, only in reverse order. Instead of an A,B structure (e.g., "learned unwillingly") paralleled by another A,B structure ("forgotten gladly"), the A,B will be followed by B,A ("gladly forgotten"). So instead of writing, "What is learned unwillingly is forgotten gladly," you could write, "What is learned unwillingly is gladly forgotten."
[BALANCE] reversing the order of repeated words or phrases (a loosely chiastic structure, AB-BA) to intensify the final formulation, to present alternatives, or to show contrast: "Ask not what you can do for rhetoric, but what rhetoric can do for you. "
[TROPHE - COMPARISON] something is described by using words that are not literally applicable. "Unmerciful ppl have hearts of steel" "Ideas are food for thought"
[TROPHE - COMPARISON] a part of something is used to represent the whole (and vice versa). ) Saying hired hands instead of workers (part for whole) and saying the law instead of the police
[REPETITION] counterpart to anaphora, because the repetition of the same word or words comes at the end of successive phrases, clauses, or sentences: "You will find washing beakers helpful in passing this course, using the gas chromatograph desirable for passing this course, and studying hours on end essential to passing this course. "
[REPETITION] recurrence of initial consonant sounds. "_____ makes a satisfying sound!"
[TROPHE - COMPARISON] compares two things, which are alike in several respects, for the purpose of explaining or clarifying some unfamiliar or difficult idea or object by showing how the idea or object is similar to some familiar one. "He that voluntarily continues ignorance is guilty of all the crimes which ignorance produces, as to him that should extinguish the tapers of a lighthouse might justly be imputed the calamities of shipwrecks."
[REPETITION] repeats the last word of one phrase, clause, or sentence at or very near the beginning of the next "Pleasure might cause her read, reading might make her know,/ Knowledge might pity win, and pity grace obtain"
[BALANCE] Several parts of a sentence or several sentences are expressed similarly to show that the ideas in the parts or sentences are equal in importance. Ex: "Ferocious dragons breathing fire and wicked sorcerers casting their spells do their harm by night in the forest of Darkness. "
[CONNECTIONS] particular attribute the name of a famous person recognized for that attribute. By their nature eponyms often border on the cliche. "You think your boyfriend is tight. I had a date with Scrooge himself last night"
[TROPHE - WORDPLAY] The forming of a word by imitating a sound that is associated with the thing being named buzz chirp murmur
[OMISSION] Omitting a word or phrase that is easily inferred from the context. In the sentence The average banker thinks he isn't. The word average is omitted but understood to follow isn't.
[ADDITION] A figure of speech where conjunctions that are usually omitted are kept and used in close succession. [Slow rhythem, gives solemnity dignity] "He likes to use polysyndeton and asyndeton and prolepsis and paralipsis whenever he can — but he hates tmesis to pieces."

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