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SS-River Civilizations

Terms

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Loess
a fertile deposite of wind blown soil
Advnaced Technology
the use of knowledge, tools and inventions to meet a community's needs (it may make tasks easier, or solve problems)
Pyramids
a massive structure with a rectangular base and four triangular sides that were tombs for the Pharaohs of Egypt
Monsoon
a wind that shifts in direction at certain times of each year
Dynasty
a series of rulers that form a single family
Empire
a political unit in which a number of peoples or countries are controlled by a single ruler
Fuedalism
a political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to the king, in exchange for thier loyalty, military service and protection of of the people who live on the land
large cities dominate countryside around them, monumental architecture and public building projects, complex political organization, record keeping, advanced technonlogy, specialization of labor, advanced art and literature, long distance trade, complex institution and religious institution
9 characteristics of civilization
Cutural Diffusion
the spreading of of ideas or products from one culture to another
Epic of Gildamesh
first literature of ancient civilizations that tells about how life was
specialization
the developement of skills in a particular kind of work, such as trading or record keeping
civilization
a form of culture characterized by cities, specialized workers, complex institutions, record keeping and adanced technology
Dynastic Cycle
the historical pattern of the rise, decline and replacement of dynasties
Theocracy
a government in which the ruler is viewed as a divine figure; a government controlled by religious leaders
Hammurabi's Code
laws that apply to everyone in Sumeria to unite government; the first government that was responsible for its people
Scribes
one of the professional record keepers in early civilizations
Monumental Architecture and Public Building Process
this may include churches, temples, city walls, irriagation projects, public arenas, government buildings, ect. They are generally an indication of what the society values
Book of the Dead
collection of texts containing hymns, prayers, magic spells, and declarations intented to prove the soul worthy of etenal life
Nile
able to travel with winds blowing south and current moving north, therefore uniting upper and lower Egypt
City-State
a city and its surrounding lands functioning as an independant political unit
Advantage of Civilizations
development of specialized art, skills, invententions, and literature; building of economically and politically organized cities; increased ability to protect people from dangers both inside and outside the city; growth of proserity, improving quality of life
Mandate of Heaven
in Chinese history, the divine appproval thought to be the basis of royal authority
Specialization of Labor
With basic food needs taken care of by fewer people, others had time to specialize in jobs taht improve the quality of life
China's Sorrow
a nickname for the Huang He because the floods it could bring were horrific
large cities that dominate the coutryside around them
with the increase in population come an increase in food production. The cities control the outlying lands in order to ensure a reliable source of food for the inhabitants
Mummification
a process of embalming and drying corpes to prevent them from decaying; thought to have a great afterlife
Irrigation
the bringing of water to crop fields by means of canals and ditches
Record Keeping
this important development allowed societies to organize and maintain the growing political, social and economic structure that emerged with the settlement in farming areas. These societies that developed record keeping were able to communicate multiple ideas adn large amounts of information that led to greater complexity and growth
Oracle Bones
one of the animal bones or tortoise shells used by ancient Chinese priests to communicate with the gods
Material Culture
object that are part of a culture such as pottery, tools and textile
Disadvantage of Civilizations
increased inequality between men and women and different social and economic classes; overuse of land and natural resources, destruction of land by increasing polution; increased attacks from outsiders (other people want wealth and resources; more people=more crime); pollution, disease and dirty (decrease in sanitation)
papyrus
a tall reed that grows in the Nile delta used by the ancient Egyptians to make a paperlike material for writing on
Advanced Art and Literature
In prehistoric times and in simple drawings, most artwork and literature was produced by people who were preoccupied with activities for survival like hunting and gathering or farming. Art consisted of simple drawings, and literature usually took form of oral stories passed from one generation to the next. With the development of civilization, some people had time to concentrate on art and literature, making them their primary occupation
Cuneiform
a system of writing with wedge shaped symbols; invented by the Sumerians around 3000 BC
Institution
a long lasting pattern in communities
Long Distance Trade
As technology improved and specialization increased, trade with other civilization centers began. This trade led to cultural diffusion. Not only was material culture shared, but nonmaterial culture also spread, contributing to the cosmopolitan nature of cities
Pharoah
a king of ancient Egypt, considered a god as well as a political leader
Silt
fine soil carried in the water by rivers
Institution
a long-lasting pattern of organization in a community
Artisans
skilled worker, such as a weaver or potter, who makes goods by hand
Hammurabi
a Sumerian who wanted to get a united government with the same laws applying to each person
Nonmaterial Culture
such as beliefs, customs and values
Hieroglyphics
an ancient Egyptian writing system in which pictures where used to represent ideas and sounds
Barter
a form of trade in which people exchange goods and services without without the use of money
Polytheism
a belief in many gods
Bronze Age
a period in human history, beginning around 3000 BC in some areas, during which people began using bronze, rather than copper or stone, to fashion tools and weapons
Cultural Diffusion
the spreading and sharing of cultural characteristics

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