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Treatment of varicella with acyclovir is generally not indicated in which age group?
Health toddlers do not require treatment. Immuncompromised children, newborns and teenagers generally require acyclovir.
What are the possible complications of varicella?
Superinfection of the skin
Meningoencephalitis and systemic disease in immunocompromised children.
What is the treatment of Kawasaki syndrome?
High dose Aspirin
1-2 days of IVIG
Neonate presents with hydrocephalus, seizures, intracranial calcifications and ring enhancing lesion on head CT. What is the diagnosis?
What are the most common causes of bacterial meningitis in children over 1 month?
S. pneumoniae
N. menigitidis
H. influenzae
What are the most common organisms implicated in bacterial meningitis in newborn infants?
E. coli
Group B Streptococcus
What drugs are effective in toxoplasmosis?
An infant presents with a blueberry muffin rash, cataracts, hearing loss, cardiac defects and encephalitis. What is the diagnosis?
What is the most common sequela of meningits in children?
Sensorineural hearing loss
Neonate presents with petechial rash, periventricular calcifications, microcephaly and chorioretinitis. What is the diagnosis?
CMV infection
What is the primary cause of aseptic meningitis in children?
15 month old boy presents with a 4 day history of rhinorrhea, low grade fever and progressively worsening cough. Exam: inspiratory stridor, "barking cough"; what is the likely diagnosis?
What is the treatment for CMV infection?
A mother has active herpes lesions at delivery. What should be the route of delivery?
What is the immediate management for a child with a clinical diagnosis of croup and who does not have immediate respiratory compromise?
Cool mist aerosol
Lateral plain film of the neck
An infant presents with a maculopapular rash, lymphadenopathy, "snuffle" and osteitis. What is the diagnosis?
What is the next step in management of a child with croup who has worsened despite cool mist aerosol?
Racemic epinephrine
Corticosteroids are often used as well.
What is the "traditional" cause of epiglottitis?
H. influenze type B
Routine vaccination against type B has decreased incidence.
What is the treatment of syphilis seropositive mothers?
The most likely pathogens associated with croup are?
Parainfluenza virus
Influenza virus
What is the immediate management of a child with suspicion of epiglottitis and imminent upper airway obstruction?
Endoscopic evaluation of airway in operating room.
A one year old child presents with URI symptoms and apneic spells in winter. What diagnosis do the apneic spells suggest?
RSV broncholitis
When is tympanostomy reccomended for otitis media?
1. For chronic otitis media with effusion persisting for more than 3 months.
2. Reccurent AOM (6 episodes/6 months) which is not prevented by prophylactic antibiotics.
What is the treatment for acute otitis media for patients who have had initial treatment failure and have received antibiotics in the last 1 month?
IM ceftriaxone
Urgent tympanocentesis
What is the empiric antibiotic choice for neonatal sepsis?
Ampicillin and Gentamicin
Ampicillin and third generation cephalosporin(not ceftriaxone)
What is the thumbprint sign suggestive of?
What is the steeple sign suggestive of?
What is the commonest organism implicated in croup?
Parainfluenza virus
What is the typical age group of croup?
3 months to 3 years
What is the typical age group for epiglottitis?
3-7 years

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