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Jazz History Final


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Ma Raney
-Mother of blues
-100 songs 1923-1928
Sidney Bechet
-1st ambassador
-New orleans jazz player
-played clarinet/soparano saxaphone
-One of Jazz's greatest clarinetists
"Memphis Blues"
-Song, W.C. Handy
-his first successful jazz
-Published in 1912, wrote in 1909
"St. Louis Blues"
-w.c. Handy
-Song, most popular of all time
-published in 1914
-recorded in 1922
Handy's Memphis Blues Band
-group who played Memphis Blues
-his first blues in 1909, "Memphis Blues"
-18th amendment
Joe "King" Oliver
-played cornet
-associated with gennett records
"dippermouth blues", King Oliver's Creole Jazz Band
-Handy was a mentor to Armstrong
-Papa Joe
Black Swan Records
-Black Swan was founded in May of 1921 by Harry Pace, New York City. -The parent company of the record label was originally named the Pace Phonograph Company. The company was formed after the prior partnership with W.C. Handy, the Pace-Handy Music Publishing Company, dissolved.
Jelly Roll Morton
-stride piano
-grandpa spells (ragtime)
Anne Richards
-cool school vocalist
-best award for best band singer in ‘56
Mel Torme
-“The velvet fog”
-led the Mel-Tones, a vocal group specializing in jazzy arrangements, backed by the swing band of Artie Shaw.
-recorded with Nat king Cole
Sarah “sassy” Vaughn
-singer from bop era (Leonard feather)
-The greatest singing talent- (Ella Fitzgerald)
-Broke away with Billy Eckstine. Eckstine and Vaughan, with Dizzy Gillespie and Charlie Parker
Peggy Lee
-Female frank Sinatra, (Tony bennett)
-joined Benny Goodman's band at the height of its popularity—for two years
Art Blakey
-Hard pop creator
-Along with Kenny Clarke and Max Roach inventors of the modern, bebop style of drumming
Charles Mingus
-Born in Nogales
-Hybrid jazz leader
-Pianist/composer/band leader
-In red novo trio
-jazz bassist, composer, bandleader,pianist.
-known for his activism against racial segregation
-considerd heir to Duke Ellington
Dave Brubeck
-1st Jazz musician to be featured in time magazine in '54.
-long-time musical partner, alto saxophonist Paul Desmond, wrote what is arguably the quartet's most famous piece, "Take Five" (which is in 5/4 time). Brubeck experimented with time signatures through much of his career, recording "Pick Up Sticks" in 6/4, "Unsquare Dance" in 7/4, and "Blue Rondo A La Turk" in 9/8, "Blue Rondo A La Turk" is a play on Mozart's "Rondo alla Turca"
Miles Davis
-Played role in virtually every jazz development
-Played the trumpet
-Recorded the first cool jazz records. -He was responsible for development of modal jazz, and jazz fusion arose from his work with other musicians in the late 1960s and early 1970s.
-Free jazz was the only post-war style not significantly influenced by Davis-
Duke Ellington
-American jazz composer, pianist and bandleader.
-He was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1969 and the Legion of Honor by France in 1973
- Take the A Train (words and music by Billy Strayhorn), Satin Doll, Rockin' in Rhythm, Mood Indigo, Caravan, Sophisticated Lady, and "It Don't Mean a Thing If It Ain't Got That Swing".
Louis Armstrong
-nicknames Satchmo and Pops
-Probably the most famous jazz musician of the 20th century. -trumpeter, but towards the end of his career known as a vocalist and was one of the most influential jazz singers.
-Joe "King" Oliver was mentor
Scott Joplin/Ragtime
-best known ragtime musician/ composer
-"Maple leaf rag"
-1893 World's colombian exposition
-chicago world's fair; begining of ragtime
Irving Mills
-Duke Ellington's manager
-Ina Ray Hutton's manager too
-Tin pan alley, NYC
Cool Jazz
Dave Brubeck with Paul Desmond
Modern Jazz Quartet
Gerry Mulligan with Chet Baker
Miles Davis with Bill Evans
Lee Konitz
Chico Hamilton
George Shearing
Shelly Manne
---Along with the bebop movement developed during the 1940s, the 1950s ushered in a lighter, more romantic style of jazz called "cool."
-jazz that is understated and subtle often encompasses West coast jazz or West coast cool, which originated primarily from California. The Claude Thornhill Orchestra and Lennie Tristano recorded cool jazz as early as the late 1940s.
Benny Carter
-alto sax/trumpet
-helped break color barrier in w. coast
-leader in LA
Charlie Barnet
-Leaader of, "Blackest white band of them all"
Don Redman
-Arranger for Fletcher Henderson orchestra
-Billy Page's Syncopaters in NYC
Red Norvo
-known as Mr. and Mrs. Swing with Mildred Bailey (wife)
Jimmie Lunceford
-2 beat style of popular swing
-played cotton club
William "Count" Basie
-jazz pianist, organist, and bandleader
-Toured vaudeville
-popularized 4 beat style
-discovered by John Hammond
Chick Webb
---vocalist: Ella Fitzgerald
-won battle of bands w/ benny goodman
-played in the Savoy Ballroom in NYC
Benny Goodman
-Popularized "Hot Music"
-known as "King of Swing", "Patriarch of the Clarinet", and "Swing's Senior Statesman"
- Teddy Wilson to play with him and drummer Gene Krupa in the Benny Goodman Trio.
-In 1936, he added Lionel Hampton on vibes to form the Benny Goodman Quartet
Ina Ray Hutton
-All girl orchestra
-Irving Mills was manager (duke ellington too)
-"hot" arrangements
Paul Whiteman
-combined jazz and classical
-gave self tittle of "King of Jazz"
-considered a phony
Gene Krupa
-Benny Goodman's quartet
Bennie Moten
-Kansas City style of Jazz
-Territory Bands
Artie Shaw
- jazz clarinetist, composer, bandleader, and writer.
-1st white to hire full time black singer (Billie Holiday, female)
Fletcher Henderson
-arranger, arranged w/ louis armstrong
-big band, jazz, swing
-Fletcher Henderson Orchestra; Hot Jazz Dance Band
-Black Swan Records
Art Tatum
-"Tiger Rag"
-Jazz pianist, stride player
James P. Johnson
-pianist/ composer
-originator of stride piano
Fats Waller
-jazz pianist,
-comedic entertainer
First Jazz Record
1917 Victor Talking Machine Company
-Original Dixieland Jazz Band
--recorded two sides:
("Livery Stable Blues" and "Dixie Jazz Band One Step")
Transmission of Jazz
New Orleans to Chicago, to New York, To Kansas City, to LA
Syncopation-- shift of an accent
-shift of an accent in a passage or composition that occurs when normally weak beat is stressed.
-spontaneous melodies guiding a solo
Call and Response
-common technique in which players take turns answering each other.
Trading 2's
-improvisational formats in jazz, common since the swing era.
-each soloist improvises for two bars before the next soloist takes over for two bars
-the performance of simultaneous and contrasting rhythms, such paterns with duple and tripple goupings.
-Superimposing one rhythmic pattern on another causes a cross-rhythm or polyrhythm.
-is based on skips between notes
-Musical form that comprises an eight bar theme, A played 2x. A contrasting melody B, follows which is also usually eight bars long, before the A theme returns. Usually the 3rd and 2nd A sections will vary.
-musical form which each section is usually 8 eight bars and has three themes (A,B,C).
-Musicians often speak of the first half of the tune as AB and the second half as AC
organized sequence of tones
The temporal span of music
Early Jazz
blues elements
common or cut time
cyclical structures
use of swing note
popular music
Later Jazz
may use little or no blues elements
complex time signatures
may have no improv
may not have structure
may not have use of swing note
not so popular
listening more than dancing
W.C. Handy
-father of the blues
-Lauzetta quartet
-first blues in 1909, published in 1912
-handy-pace music publishing company
Bix Biederbecke
1st white musician
Events that led to demise of big bands
-recording vocalists such as Sinatra
3 common musical elements that appear in jazz
2 up tempo dances from jazz age/ swing era
-Fox Trot: ragtime originally, then to big band music which swing followed
-Charleston: James P. Johnson, swing era
John Hammond
-Bebop/jazz club promoter
-Billie Holiday, Benny Goodman
Bessie Smith
-regarded as the most popular and successful blues singer of 1920s and 30s
-recorded with Louis Armstrong, James P. Johnson, Joe Smith, Charlie Green, and Fletcher Henderson.
-Orginally hired as a dancer with Ma Raney
Kid Ory
-Jazz trombonist and bandleader
-he returned to California in the 1940s and 1950s his band was an important force in reviving New Orleans style jazz
Jazz Timeline
-Blues develops by 1910.
-Ragtime develops most popular music 1900 and 1911.
-Jazz born in New Orleans 1910-1920's
-Swing 30's
-Bebop 40's
-Hard Bop or funk/cool 50's
-Modal and Free Jazz 60's
-Jazz rock or fusion 70's
-Contemporary Jazz 80's
-Hip Hop/Hard bop revival 90's
4 sections of big band; swing era 30's & 40's
-bass section
-trumpet section,
-trombone section,
-reed section (clarinet)
John Birks "Dizzy" Gillespie
-jazz trumpeter, bandleader, singer, and composer.
-Gillespie, with Charlie Parker, major figure in development of bebop/ modern jazz

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