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VOCAB GLENCOE GOVERNMENT CH. 15

all vocab for chapter 15 of american government, glencoe edition, sections 1-2-3

Terms

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Tort
a wrongful act, other than breach of contract, for which an injured party has the right to sue
Jury
a group of citizens who hear evidence during a trial and give a verdict
Real property
land an whatever is attached to or growing on it
Criminal law
One that defines crimes
Common law
"case law", made by judges in the process of resolving individual cases
Personal property
movable belongings such as clothes and jewelry, as well as intangible items like stocks, bonds, copyrights, and patents
Petty offense
a minor crime, usually punished by a ticket rather than being arrested
Misdemeanor
a minor crime that is usually punished by a fine or jail sentence of less than one year
Mortgage
a loan taken out to pay for a house
Answer
a formal response by a defendant to the charges in a complaint
Verdict
decision
Defendant
the person against whom a civil or criminal suit is brought in court
Contract
a set of voluntary promises, enforceable by the law, between two or more parties
Sentence
the punishment to be imposed on an offender after a guilty verdict
Implied contract
a contract in which the terms are not expressly stated but can be inferred from the actions of the people involved and the circumstances
Affidavit
a written statement to prove statements of fact signed by a witness under oath
Procedural due process
principle that prohibits arbitrary enforcement of the law, and also provides safeguards to ensure that constitutional and statutory rights are protected by law enforcement
Plea bargaining
the process in which a defendant pleads guilty to a lesser crime than the one with which the defendant was originally charged
Law
set of rules and standards by which a society governs itself
Presumed innocence
he presumption that a person is innocent until proven guilty
Equity
a system of rules by which disputes are resolved on the grounds as fairness
Civil law
one relating to disputes among two or more individuals or between individuals and the government
Indictment
a formal charge by a grand jury
Adversary system
a judicial system in which opposing lawyers present their strongest cases
Injunction
an order that will stop a particular action or enforce a rule or regulation
Arrest warrant
an order signed by a judge naming the individual to be arrested for a specific crime
Felony
a major crime
Administrative law
spells out authority and procedures to be followd by these agencies, as procedures to be followed by these agencies, as well as the rules and regulations issued
Statute
law written by legislative branch
Grand jury
group that hears charges against a suspect and decides whither there is sufficient evidence to bring the person to trialIndictment
Ordinances
statutes passed by city councils (laws)
Information
a sworn statement by the prosecution that there is sufficient evidence for a trial
Statutory law
written down so that everyone may know and understand it
Complaint
a legal document filed with the court that has jurisdiction over the problem
Discovery
process when both sides prepare for a trial by gathering evidence to support their case
Due process
principle in the Fifth Amendment stating that the government must follow proper constitutional procedures in trials and in other actions it takes against individuals
Mediation
a process in which each side is given the opportunity to explain its side of the dispute and must listen to the other side
Summons
an official notice of a lawsuit that includes the date, time, and place of the initial court appearance
Substantive due process
certain rights of individuals in the application of laws, some that are specified in the Constitution (like free speech) and some that are not specified (like the right of privacy in making personal decisions)
Hung jury
a jury that is unable to reach a decision
Expressed contract
-a contract in which the terms are specifically stated, usually in writing
Constitutional law
branch of law dealing with the formation, construction, and interpretation of constitutions
Criminal justice system
system of state and federal courts, police, and prisons that enforces criminal law
Plaintiff
brings charges in the law suit

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