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History 8: Egypt

Terms

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Hieroglyphics
The Egyptian's earliest writing system. They carved picture symbols that stood for objects, ideas and sounds, onto pieces of slate.
Ramses
Called Ramses II or Ramses the Great. led the Egyptians to fight their neighbors, the Hittites for control of Syria. After Battle of Kadesh, the two empires made a peace treaty. Ruled for 67 years. Built many tombs and statues, 52 sons.
Polytheism
The worship of many deities (gods). The Egyptian religion was based on polytheism.
The Hyskos
People from western Asia. Conquered Egypt in 1700's BC, ended Middle Kingdom. They had new tools for war: bronze weapons, horse drawn chariots. Established a new dynasty that lasted for 110 years.
What is the Egyptian attitude towards the afterlife as reflected in their religion, art and architecture?
The Egyptians beleived in life after death. The gods that they worshiped acted as protectors of their life on Earth and sometimes over saw their journey after death. The process of mummification was a way to prepare the body and soul for the journey after death. The pyramids were built as an eternal place of rest for the god-kings. Eventually, everyone could achieve a life after death.
Hathor
Protective goddess. Goddess of love and joy. Woman with ears of a cow or woman with a headdress of horns and a sun disk.
Ra
Sun God. MOST IMPORTANT GOD OF ANCIENT EGYPTIANS. Man with a hawk head and headdress with a sun disk. He traveled through the underworld at night. In the underworld he appeared as a man with the head of a ram.
Dynasty
Line of rulers from one family. 30 dynasties ruled Egypt: 3 periods: Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, New Kingdom.
Osiris
God of the dead: ruler of the underworld / god of resurrection and fertility.
Monarchy
United villages into small kingdoms, under the rule of al king.
Pharaoh
Egyptian word meaning, "great house of the king". Used in New Kingdom, first by Ahmose.
Seth
God of chaos
Geb
God of the Earth: man lying down under the sky goddess, Nut
Narmer
King of Upper Egypt about 3000 BC. Conquered lower Egypt and set up first government that ruled all Egypt. Built captial at Memphis. First Egyptian dynasty.
Theocracy
A government where the same person is both the religious leader and political leader. Egyptians thought of their king as a god who ruled over all Egytians.
Anubis
God of embalming and dead: man with a jackal head: Jackals were seen in cemeteries in ancient Egypt so it was believed that Anubis watched over the dead.
New Kingdom
1600 BC Ahmose, an Egytian prince drove out the Hyksos, and founded the first dynasty of the New Kingdom. He took the title Pharaoh. Egyptians learned to use Hyksos weapons and chariots. Reopened avenues of trade, rebuilt temples.
Horus
God of the sky: man with the head of a hawk: protector of the ruler of Egypt: pharaoh was "living Horus".
Old Kingdom
2700 BC - 2200 BC. Upper and Lower Egypt kept separate kingdoms, but later built unified government. Developed basic features of its civilization. BUILT THE PYRAMIDS: an eternal resting place for their god-kings.
Rosetta Stone
A stone from 200s BC carved with Greek letters and two forms of Egyptian writing. A French archaelogist translated the Greek text and matched it to the Egytian text. He was able to decipher the Egyptian hieroglyphics. It is now in the British Museum in London, England.
Bureaucracy
A group of government officials headed by the king's prime minister. The Egytian king gave many responsibilities to these officials - collecting taxes, trade, building canals.
Akhenaton (Amenhotep)
1370 BC came to power. WIfe was Nefertiti. Declared Egyptians should worship only one god - Aton, the sun-disk god. Moved capital to new city dedicated to Aton. People and priests did not like the change and continued to worship many gods. Priests resented their loss of power. After his death, priests restored the old religion.
Nefertiti
Wife of Akhenaton.Supported his break with traditional religion, worshiped Aton.
How did the Egytians use their environment to meet their needs?
Egyptians farmed and their lives were regulated by the Nile's flooding. They grew wheat and barley. Early Egyptians harvested papyrus which grew wild along the banks of the Nile to use for rope, sandals, baskets and writing material. The early farming villages were protected from invasions by the surorunding deserts and cataracts. Farmers built ditches and canals to carry flood waters to basins. There the silt settled and served as fertilizer for planting crops. They built dams and reservoirs which made year round irrigation possible.
Thutmose
Stepson of Hatshepsut. Had large army. Conquered Syria and other lands for Egypt. Trade made the Egyptians rich.
Mummification
Preservation of the dead's body by embalming. Wrapped body in linen strips. Egyptians believed that a king's soul continued to guide the kingdomafter death so they preserved the body by mummificaiton.
Hatshepsut
1480 BC Queen Hatshepsut came to power during the New Kingdom, forst ruling with her husband and then on behalf of her stepson, Thutmose III. Had herself crowned pharaoh. Wore false beard, usually worn by kings. BUilt great fueral temple in Valley of the Kings.
What are the gifts of the Nile?
The gifts of the Nile were: 1. yearly floods bring water for farming. 2. a fan shaped delta which provided geese, ducks and fish. 3. Green Nile Valley contrasted desert areas on either side of Nile, so protected early civilizations. 4. After flooding, rich black soil covered the river's banks and delta, which made land good for farming.
Papyrus
A type of paper made from papyrus reed used by the Egyptians.
Isis
Protective goddess / used powerful magic spells to help people in need.
Empire
Many territories under one ruler. Thutmose III conquered an empire for Egypt.
Middle Kingdom
2050 BC. - 1800 BC.: A new dynasty reunited Egypt. Moved the capital to Thebes. Built irrigation projects and canal between NIle and Red Sea so Egytian ships could trade along coasts of Arabian Penninsula and East Africa. Expanded Egyptian territory:Nubia, Syria.
Nut
Sky goddess: body created a canopy over the Earth: arching woman's body decorated with stars

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