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Language Disorders 2


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Approaches to teaching literacy
Skills based, meaning based
skills based
an approach to teaching literacy. learn phonics first 60/70's Chall
Meaning based
an approach to teaching literacy. Not much emphasis on spelling. people learn to erad from whole struc. and mean extracted from it. good emphasis of lit.
Successful reader
letter sound relationships, sight vocab strategies, comprehension strategies.
Reading skills of 1st grade
real reading, decodes single words, reading vocab 300-500, self corrects, read single instructions 2-3 words, counts syllables, spells 3-4 letter words, basic punct. capitals/periods/ types of writing
make inappropriately sized and spaced letters, or write wrong or misspelled words despite thorough instruction. ack basic spelling skills (having difficulties with p,q,b,d), and often will write the wrong word when trying to formulate thoughts (on paper).
Required by IDEA, the academic plan required for all students whoe are in special ed./ related services in the public schools.
Whole language approach
a discovery based informal method of integrating cognitive skills, lang. skills, and curricular goals.
verbal interaction between two/more participants
Type of discourse
Conversation, marration, exposition (primarily for presenting)
Narrative vs. Conversation
longer utterances, more planning, more organization, more dysfluencies, no questions, speaker controlled
Conversation vs. narrative
shorter utterances, less planning, less organization, less dysfluencies, more questions, listener controlled.
Foundation of conversational skills
turn taking, topicalization, listening, theory of mind, presupposition, development of deixis.
Theory of mind
Foundation of conversational skills, other person perspective
Foundation of conversational skills, how much the other person knows
Development deixis
Foundation of conversational skills other person perspective
reasons to assess children's narratives
Narrative lang. skills is assoc. w/ other lang. skills, narr. occur naturally in many settings ecological validity, assesses content, form, and use, can assess comp & prod. spoken & written, can adjust to child's level and shows how much support the child needs to prod. a narrative.
one main clause w/ all the sub. clauses and non clausal phrases attached to/or embedded in it.
narrative production
Personal, script, fictional
Personal narrative prod.
recounts and accounts
script narrative prod.
verbal acct. of what usually happens(typically second person you)
Fictional narrative prod.
story about animate being
Applebee's six narrative levels
used for stories/personal narratives, developed related to cog. stages, processes: centering, chaining.
Applebee's level one
Heaps stories 2-3
Applebee's level 2
seq. stories 3
Applebee's level 3
primitive narrative 4-4.5
Applebee's level 4
unfocused chain 4.5-5
Applebee's level 5
focused chain
Applebee's level 6
true narrative 5-7
Story grammar
Setting, initiating event, internal response, plan, attempt, consequence, reaction
an impair of lang, acquired comm. disorder that impairs ability to process lang. IQ not effected, diff. reading and writing.
Types of stroke
ischemic, occlusion, hemorragic
Ischemic stroke
80% artery blocked, thrombotic, embolic
Thrombotic Ischemic stroke
50% of stroke caused by cerebral thrombosis. large vessel thrombosis 30% small vessel thrombosis 20% Clot
Thrombotic ischemic embolic
30% of strokes caused by cerbral embolism-clot travelled from somewhere else.
Hermorragic stroke
20% bleeding from blood vessel, intracerebral hemorrhage/subarachnoid hemmorrhage, ruptured blood vessel
The unintentional substitution of an incorrect word for an intended word.
Area's of lang. affected stroke
Wernicke's-comprehension, Broca's-lang. prod., motor area-artic.
the uninteded sub of an invented /nonsense word that contains no smilarities to the intended word.
inability to recall the names of people, common objects, and places.
Global Aphasia
most severe, prod. few recog. words, understands little/no spoken lang., neither read/write, immed. post stroke.
Broca's aphasia
speech output severely reduced, short utter less than four words, limited vocab, sounds clumsy and labored, may understand speech, limit read/write, halting/efforful quality.
Wernicke's aphasia
fluent aphasia, speech fluent, word retrival diff., artic and prosody intact, empty meaningless, verbal paraphasias, lteral paraphasias poor auditory comp.
Verbal paraphasia
unintended word sub for another
literal papaphasia
phonemic errors.
Mixed non-fluent apashia
sparse and effortful, limited comp of speech, reading/writing limited to elementary level.
Learning disability
any one of a heterogeneous set of learning probs. that affect the acquisition and used off listening, spaking, writing, reading, math, and reasoning.
Causes of ADHD
underactivity in frontal lobe, limited blood flow to certain parts of brain. Heredity-most common cause-more likely to have a bio relative.
Inattention in ADHD
fails to give close attn. to details/makes careless mistakes, diff sustain. attn for play, does not seem to listen when spoken to direct., does not follow through on instructions, fails to finish school tasks, diff. organizing, avoids dislikes/reluctant to do taks that require sustained mental effort, loses things, easily distracted, forgetful daily.
Hyperactivity/impulsivity ADHD
fidgets, leaves seat often, runs and climbs when inappropriate, diff. palying in leisure activities, "on the go", interupts/intrudes
Areas of internal control impact ADHD
Focal control, mental effort control, associatevie control, appetite control, behavior control, affective control, quality control
Focal control
the ability to focus on what is important
mental effort control
the energy and concentration needed to maintain focal control.
Associative control
the ability to state issues that are releveant to a designated topic w/o the use of tagential remarks
appetite control
the ability to delay gratification
behavior control
related to add, the disorgantization of the CNS that results in an inabiltity to control impulsivity
affective control
the ability to control emotions, partic. w/ regards to laughing and crying
quality control
the ability to explain and account for a person's own actions.
Selective attention
the ability to select and focus on what's important
focused attn
the attn required to recall info needed to complete an activity, usually under a time constraint
sustained attn.
the attn needed to stay on task until its completion.
Types of medication
stimulants-ridalin, hypertension-chlonodine
suggestions for manage ADHD
academic, behavior, medical, social
Academic manage of ADHD
understand child's learning style, break assignment into smaller units, break down instructions into smaller units.
Behavior manage of ADHD
consistent routines, prepare child for changes, strengthen strengths as much as addressing weaknesses, max. function and circumevent/minimize weakness, makes sure child is held accountable for own actions
social manage of ADHD
taught deal w/ emotions appro., behavior therapy, positive reinforcement and timing is important, so freq use immediately.
Spontaneous recovery
recover occurs during first 6 months, but can take 2 years. Aphasia can evolve from one type to another, auditory comp shoes the quickest and most dramatic improve, restitituion of function: reovery is a physiological process.
Characteristics of ADHD
probs w/ control and reg. of attn, impulsivity, hyperactivity
Control and reg. of attn. adhd
probs. w/ controlling attn. and paying attn. inability to stay on task, or even to be attn to know task., lose interest faster than other kids
classroom lack of attn. adhd
cannot determine important facts, answer questions w/ unexpected responses, do not follow rules for turn taking and other pragmatics.
impulsivity adhd
inabiltity to sustain inhibition. behaviors just happen
classroom impulsivity
disorganized, act inappropriately when losing affect interaction w/ peers
fidgety, run around, shift in seat
Heaps level of applebee
all simple sentences
Sequence level applebee
Central theme, character, or setting
Primitive narrative applebee
central person, object, and event
Unfocused chain
No central theme or character, no plot or story theme Lack of evidence of complete understanding of reciprocal nature of characters and events
Focused chain
Organized with both a center and a sequence
Actual chaining of events that connect the elements
True narrative
at least five story grammar elements.

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