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chapter 6C-seeds


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what kind of plants produce seeds?
gymnosperms and angiosperms
where do gymnosperms produce seeds?
on or near bracts
what are bracts?
exposed leaves found on cones
where do angiosperms produce seeds?
inside the ovaries
where do seeds develop from?
sporagnia attached to modified leaves (the sporophylls of a cone or carpels of a flower). the ovule forms as an attachment to a modified leaf and develops into a seed after fertilization. the outer layers of the ovule (integuments- usually one or two) harden to become the seed coat.
what are integuments?
the outer layers of the ovule which harden into a seed coat after fertilization
in gymnosperms, the ovulate cone typically has __ scales with each fertilized ovule developing into a seed sitting _____ the scale
2, atop
in angiosperms, seeds develop as fertilized ovules inside the ovary, which forms the base of the carpel. the ovary eventually matures into a fruit.
no question.
a gymnosperm contains an embryo with several ______ attached to a _________ and an ____________
cotyledons, short stem, embryonic root
dicot seeds contain an embryo with ________, prominent cotyledons that contain ________, _________, and _________.
fleshy, starch, protein, lipids
in dicots, the cotyledons attach to a _________ that culminates in the embryonic root called a ______________
short stem, radicle
in monocot seeds contain a ______ (size) embryo and a ________ (size) endosperm
small, large
the monocot embryo has __ (#) cotyledons known as (a) ________
1 scutellum
what is the scutellum (the one cotyledon in monocots) attached to?
an embryonic axis containing shoot and root meristems
a layer of protein called the ____________ surround the endosperm in monocot seeds and responds to signals from the scutellum by producing ______ to break down ______
aleurone, enzymes, starch
what is the name of a PASSIVE process that begins seed germination in which the dry seed takes up water like a sponge?
_______ _______ serves as a kind of clock to prevent seeds from germinating during winter warm spells
abscisic acid
what is the first sign that germination is occuring?
the busting of the radicle through the seed coat
what is the name of the embryonic shoot that begins to grow?
what is the name of the germination that occurs in which the cotyledons remain underground?
in what type of plants does hypogeous germination occur?
some dicots and most monocots
in what type of germination do the cotyledons push above the soil?
in what type of plants does epigeous germination occur?
most dicots and some monocots
through what process are asexual seeds produced?
what are 4 functions of the fruit?
1. protect embryo from drying out
2. protect from diseases and herbivores
3. promote seed distribution when animals eat fruit
4. provide ready-made fertilizer for seed
what is another name for the ovary wall?
what are the three parts of the pericarp (ovary wall)?
1. exocarp (skin)
2.mesocarp (middle)
3. endocarp (inner)
what are the 3 general types of fruits?
1. simple
2. aggregate
3. multiple
what are simple fruits?
fruits that develop from 1 carpel or several fused carpels
what are aggregate fruits?
fruits that originate from one flower that hasd many carpels
what are multiple fruits?
fruits that devlop from the carpels of more than one flower ina sincgle inflorescence
what are the 5 types of simlpe FLESHY fruits and give an example of each.
1. berries
2. hesperidia (orange)
3. pepos (pumpkin)
4. drupes (olives)
5. pomes (pears)
what are the 2 main categories of simple DRY fruits?
dehiscent and indehiscent
what are dehiscent fruits?
dry fruits that split open at maturity to shed seeds
what are indehiscent fruits?
dry fruits that remain closed at maturity
what are 4 types w/ examples of dehiscent dry fruits?
1. follicles (milkweed)
2. legumes (beans)
3. siliques (cabbage)
4. capsules (poppies)
what are 5 type w/ examples of indehiscent dry fruits?
1. nuts
2. schizocarps (carrot)
3. achenes (strawberry)
4. samaras (elm tree)
5. carypses (rice)
how are seeds transported?
water, air, being eaten, getting stuck on animals

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