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History Ch. 1-3


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specially trained scientists who work to uncover the story of prehistoric people
human-made objects, giving hints how of the people lived.
scientists who study the culture of a certain people, examine artifacts
a people's unique wat of life
scientists who study fossils
Mary Leakey
archaeologist who led an expedition in East Africa, found footprints that resemebled human prints. Found skeletion and named it Homo habilis.
humans and other creatures that walk upright. Also had opposable thumbs.
discovered by Donald Johanson. Is a complete skeleton of a female hominid.
Paleolithic Age
aka Old Stone Age, earlier and longer part of Stone Age, people created stone chopping tools.
Neolithic Age
aka New Stone Age, people learned to polish tools, make pottery, farm, and raise livestock.
Homo habilis
"man of skill." First peoples to make stone tools
Homo erectus
"upright man." More intelligent than Homo habilis. Developed technology, were skillful hunters, invented better tools. First to use fire! Developed beginnings of spoken language.
Homo sapiens
"wise men." Name for modern humans. 2 groups" Neanderthals and Cro-Magnons.
group of Homo sapiens. Tried to explain and control world, developed religion and rituals. First to hold funerals/burials.
group of Homo sapiens. Identical to modern humans, made new tools, created art, were superior hunters.
highly mobile people who moved from place to place searching for food.
nomads who got food by hunting animals and gathering plant foods.
Neolithic Revolution
aka agricultural revolution. Changed human-life due to beginnings of farming. Caused because of changing climate.
slash-and-burn farming
a method in farming in which they cut trees or grasses and burned them to clear a field.
the taming of animals
Catal Huyuk
"forked mound." An agricultural village discovered by archaeologists. Located on fertile plain of Turkey. Had rich, fertile soil and had dark rock used to make glass.
a complex culture with: 1.advanced cities 2.specialized workers 3. complex institution 4.record keeping 5.advanced technology
the development of skills in a specific kind of work.
skilled workers who make goods by hand.
a long-lasting pattern of organization in a community.
professional record keepers. Invented cuneiform and wrote with a stylus.
"wedge shaped." A Sumerian writing system created by scribes. Consisted of pictographs.
Bronze Age
the time period in which people began to use bronze to fashion tools and weapons.
one of the earliest cities in Sumer, was a highly sophisticated civilization. Had social classes, great trader, beautiful art, plows, irrigation systems, barters, and ziggurats.
one of the 1st civilizations. Located in Mesopotamia. used characteristics of civilizations.
the way of trading goods and services without money.
a tiered, pyramid-shaped structure that formed part of a Sumerian temple.
Fertile Crescent
an arc of rich farmland in SW Asia between the Persian Gulf and the Mediterranean Sea.
"land between the rivers." A plain included in the Fertile Crescent. Framed by the Tigris and Euphrates.
Mesopotamia's Environmental Challenges
1. unpredictable flooding/drought (solved by irrigation) 2. no natural barriers (solved by building city walls) 3. limited natural resources (solved by trade)
a city and its surrounding lands functioning as an independaent political unit.
Early Governments of Sumer
controlled by temple priests who demanded a portion of every farmer's crops as taxes. During war, a tough commander led the city. Some military leaders became full-time leaders.
a series of ruled from a single family.
cultural diffusion
the process in which a new idea or a product spreads from one culture to another
the belief in more than one god
Sumerian social classes
1. Kinds, landholders, priests 2. wealthy merchants 3. ordinary Sumerian people 4. slaves
Sumerian women
could work as merchants, farmers, artisans. Could join priesthood and some learned to read and write.
Sumerian arithmetic/technology
developed a number system based on 360, base on seconds in a minute and degress of a circle.
Sumerian architecture
invented arches, columns, ramps, pyramid, and ziggurats.
Sumerian writing system
called cuneiform. One of the 1st writing systems, helped w/ record keeping.
a conqueror who defeated the city-states of Sumer. From Akkad. Took control of Mesopotamia. Created 1st empire.
a political unit in which a number of peoples or countries are controlled by a single ruler.
emperor of Babylonian Empire, most enduring legacy = Code of Hammurabi
Code of Hammurabi
created by Hammurabi to maintain peace. Had 282 laws dealing with family, business,propery issues, and crime. Set different punishments for men/women and rich/poor. Goal- "to bring about the rule of righteousness"
Egyptian Environmental Challenges
1. Nile's waters were too low - starvation
2. Nile's waters were too high - destruction/flooding 3. Natural barriers forced Egyptians to live on a very small portion of land.
a broad, marshy, triangular area of land formed by deposits of silt and the river mouth.
king of Egypt who united both Upper (white) and Lower (red) Egypt. Wore a red and white crown to show unification. Made the capital Memphis. Establish 1st Egyptian dynasty.
Egyptian god-kings who were thought to be as splendid as gods of heaven.
a type of government in which rule is based on religious authority
a massive structure with a rectangular base and four triangular sides, sometimes used as burial places.
the process of preserving bodies, involves enbalming and drying the corpse.
Egyptian social classes
1. king, queen, royal family 2. upper class 3. middle class 4. lower class
"sacred carving," a more flexible writing system in which a picture stoff for an idea.
Egyptian's new writing surface, use papyrus reeds to form a paperlike surface.
Egyptian science/technology
developed a calendar with 365 days and divided the year into 12 months, each with 30 days. Developed a written number system which helped w/ taxes. Doctors also new how to check heart rates and to use splints. They also used surgery.
a large landmass that forms a distinct part of a continent.
seasonal winds that blew from the NE from Oct-Feb and SW from June-Oct.
Indus Valley Environmental Challenges
1. yearly floods were unpredictable 2. rivers changed course (Indus and Ganges) 3. wet/dry seasons were unpredictable due to monsoons.
Harappan civilization
another name for Indus Valley civilization. Named this because of numerous discoveries in Harappa.
Harappan Culture
based on agriculture. Developed a written language, animals were very important, culture was a theocracy, and conducted a thriving trade.
fertile soil blown by the winds from deserts in China.
Chinese Environmental Challenges
1. Huang He's flooding was disastrous 2. were isolated, trade was limited 3. natural boundaries did not fully protect.
Shang Dynasty
1st family of Chinese rulers to leave written records. Shang kings built elaborate palaces and tombs.
Chinese family
was center of Chinese society. The most important virtue = respoect for parents. Women were treated as inferiors.
Chinese religion
believed spirits of family ancestors brough good fortunes or disasters to their family. Shang worshipped Shang Di, and consulted gods through oracle bones.
oracle bones
animals bones and tortoise shells on which priests had scracthed questions for the gods.
Chinese writing system
each symbol stands for one syllable. No links between spoken and written language. All people learned the same language. Too many symbols--hard to learn.
Zhou Dynasty
overthrew the Shang, adopted much of Shang culture.
Mandate of Heaven
the divine approval thought to be the basis of royal authority.
dynastic circle
the pattern of rise, decline, and replacement of dynasties
a political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belonged to the king in return for military service and loyalty.
Chinese technology
1. roads and canals were created 2. coined money was introduced 3. blast furnaces were developed.
a group of nomadic people who came from the steppes of the Caucasus
dry grasslands
movements of a people from one region to another
an Indo-European people who setteld in Anatolia. Formed an empire (capital-Hattusas).
aka Asian Minor, huge peninsula is SW Asia.
Hittite technology
excelled in technology of war. used a lot of iron, created chariots. Technology made it a very military empire.
an Indo-European people who were settling in India. They left almost no records.
the Aryans' sacred litertaure. Vedas are 4 collections of prayers, spells, and ritual instructions.
Aryan social classes
1. Brahmins (priests) 2. warriors 3. peasants/traders.
Aryan Caste System
made up of for castes. 1. Brahmins (priests) 2. Kshatriyas (rulers/warriors) 3. Vaishyas (peasants/traders) 4. Shudras (laborers).
1 of the greatest epics of India. Reflects the struggles that took place in India as the Aryans moved south.
a collection of religious beliefs that developed slowly over a long period of time.
teachers' comments that were written as dialogues between teachers and students.
a state of perfect understanding of all things and liberation from desires and suffering
the process in which an individual soul or spirit is born again and again until moksha is achieved.
good or bad deeds, influences specific life circumstances
Hindu Gods
3 main gods: 1. Brahma, the creator 2. Vishnu, the protector 3. Shiva, the destroyer. These 3 gods formed a supreme god: Brahman
a religion founded in India that sprung from Hinduism. Members believe that everything in the universe had a soul and should not be harmed.
a religion developed from religious questioning. Sprung from ideas of Hinduism.
Siddhartha Gautama
founder of Buddhism who was born into a novle family. To make sure he would become a great ruler, his father isolated him in a palace for many years. He wandered for many years seaking enlightenment. His voyages and teachings formed Buddhism.
a state of perfect wisdom in which one understands basic truths about the universe.
Four Noble Truths
1. Life is filled w/ suffering and sorrow 2. The cause of suffering is peoples selfish desires 3. To end all suffering one must end all desires 4. Follow the 8 Fold Path to overcome desires and reach enlightenment.
Eight Fold Path
called the Middle Way between desires and self-denial. It was a guide to behavior and by following this one could achieve nirvana.
Buddha's word for release from selfishness and pain.
Buddhist doctrine and teachings
powerful seafaring people who dominated trader in E Mediterranean. They lived on Crete. Produced fine pottery and were successful traders.
Minoan capital city in Crete.
the most powerful traders of the Mediterranean. Lived in current Lebanon. Never unified into a country, created city-states. Were great shipbuilders and seafarers. Were famous for their red-purple dye which led to great trade.
Phoenician Alphabet
symbols stood for sounds. The word alphabet comes from Phoenician letters. They spread this alphabet with those who they traded with.
the region at the eastern end of the Mediteranean Sea were the Phoenicians lived.
the ancient home of the Hebrews.
the 1st 5 books of the Hebrew Bible--the most sacred writings of the Jews.
a shepherd who lived in Ur. God commanded him to moved his people to Canaan. Was chosen as the father of the Hebrews.
the belief in a single god
the mutual promise between between God and the founder of the Hebrew people.
the man who led the Hebrews out of slavery. Moses climbed to the top of Mount Sinai were he received 2 stone tablets (10 Commandments) from God
10 Commandments
given to Moses from God on Mount Sinai. The code included rules about society and religion. Believed "an eye for an eye"-- similar to the Hammurabi Code.
a kingdom of the united Hebrews in Palestine.
1 of 3 kinds who united the Hebrews. He drove out the Philistines from Palestine. Was portrayed as a tragic man.
1 of 3 kinds who united the Hebrews. Son of Saul. Most popular leader. United the tribes, founded a dynasty, and set Jerusalem as the capital.
1 of 3 kinds who united the Hebrews. Son of David. Most powerful of kinds. Built a trading empire and beautified Jerusalem.
a Hebrew kingdom in Palestine. The southern part when the kingdom split.
peace money paid by a weaker power to a stronger.
Cyrus the Great
Persian king who conquered Babylon and allowed many exiles to return to Jerusalem.

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