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History Test for Friday October 21st


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Old Kingdom- dates
2700-2200 BC
Founding of old kingdom
people migrated from the Mediterranean area
a powerful civilization emerged due to their control of the plentiful nile
upper and lower egypt united
Middle Kingdom- dates
2050-1800 BC
Middle Kingdom founding
new pharaohs united the land after a century of disunity
New Kingdom- dates
1550-1100 BC
New Kingdom founding
after being occupied by the Hyksos, new leaders emerged and drove invaders out of Egypt.
pyramids were invented in what kingdom?
The old Kingdom
describe the pyramids.
in Giza, tombs, were very costly and strenuous work.
in what kingdom was the Nile acting less predictable?
the Middle Kingdom
1st peace treaty:
in the New Kingdom, by the Egyptians and the Hittites
the sun god
the chief god
Osiris- ruler of the
underworld, and god of the Nile
the book of the dead
contained spells, charms, and formulas to use in the afterlife.
Afterlife Test:
weigh the dead person's heart against the feather of truth
egyptian hierarchy
1. pharaoh
2. high priests/priestesses
3. nobles
4. merchants, scribes, and artisans
what was the chronological order of writing styles?
egyptian learning
written language
advances in medicine and science (mummification, geometry, astronomy, calendars)
egyptian arts and literature
folk tales
hymns and prayers
love poems
explain how egypt wouldn't exist without the Nile.
the nile gave them
trade route
allowed civilization to develop
wholly dependant on the nile
the pharaoh was believed to be a
power of the egyptian government was passed down through
the Great Pyramid at Giza was built where and when?
10 miles south of modern-day Cairo, built c. 2550 (old kingdom)
the Great pyramid was built for...
King Khufu (Cheops)
the great pyramid was built by...
conscript labor and permanent workers
how was astronomy related to the building of the great pyramid?
a vent from the burial chamber was aligned with the stars to creat a route to heaven, for the king to join the "indestructibles"
what tools did masons use to shape and place the stone?
set squares, plumb-bobs, and a-frames
what was found in the great pyramid?
three burial chambers, 1 dug into the solid rock below the pyramid
first pyramid:
"stone steps" at saqqara, six giant steps of stone
an example of how organized and centralized egypt was at the time of the old kingdom:
the work on the pyramids (gathering the materials, the workers, feeding and housing the workers)
why were pyramids constructed in the shape they are?
because the first bit of dry land was the shape of a pyramid.
when did the first sumerian cities emerge?
around 3200 BC.
sumerian city-states often battled for...
land and water
sumerian's saw the underworld as...
a grim place
the earliest form of writing
when did Hammurabi bring much of mesopotamia under his control?
1790 BC
the Code of Hammurabi
carved nearly 300 laws into a stone pillar
the code of hammurabi- crime and punishment
an eye for an eye
government, military and priests
artisans, merchants, scribes (skilled trade, or average people)
order of the mesopotamian empires hierarchy
Achievements of the Old Kingdom
Giza pyramids
Decline of the Old Kingdom
power struggles
crop failures
the cost of the pyramids
Middle Kingdom Government
new pharaohs reunited land
strong rulers organized projects
same as old kingdom, corruption common, lots of discord
Achievements of middle kingdom
a large drainage project
vast new stretches of formable land
trade networks expanded
Decline of middle kingdom
new egyptian leaders arose
- they drobe out the Hyksos
- set up the new kingdom
new kingdom government
monarch hatshepsut
ramses 2
new kingdom achievements
battle against the hittites of asia minor
peace treaty between the egyptians and the hittites
greater contact with other communities
decline or new kingdom
after ramses 2, egyptian power slowly declined
enemies conquered egypt and added the nile region to their empire

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