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dev. psych final


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original sin
children are born into the world corrupted, with an inclination towards evil
tabula rasa
at birth, each child is a "blank tablet"
innate goodness
children are inherently good and should be permitted to grow naturally with little parenting
life-span perspective
views development as lifelong, multidimensional, multidirectional, plastic, multidisciplinary, and contextual, and as a process that involves growth, maintenance, and regulation of loss
periods of development
prenatal (conception to birth), infancy (birth to 18-24 months), early childhood (2-5 years), middle and late childhood (6-11 years), adolescence (10-12 to 18-21 years), early adulthood (20s to 30s), middle adulthood (35-45 to 60s), late adulthood (60s-70
chronological age
number of years that have elapsed since birth
biological age
person's age in terms of biological health, knowing the functional capacities of a person's vital organs (the younger the person's biological age, the longer the person is expected to live)
psychological age
a person's adaptive capacities compared with those of other individuals of the same chronological age
social age
social roles and expectations related to a person's age (for example, consider if a woman has children or not...)
chorionic villi sampling
sample of the placenta is removed, used to detect genetic defects and chromosome abnormalities
a sample of amniotic fluid is withdrawn by syringe and tested for chromosome or metabolic disorders, the later performed, the better its diagnostic potential
maternal blood screening
identifies pregancies that have an elvated risk for birth defects such as spina bifida and down syndrome
In vitro fertilization (IVF)
egg and sperm are combined in a labratory dish, successfully fertilized eggs are transferred into the woman's uterus
Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT)
a doctor inserts eggs and sperm directly into a woman's fallopian tube
zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT)
two step process: 1) eggs are fertilized in the labratory, and 2) any resulting fertilized eggs are transferred into the woman's fallopian tube
passive-genotype environment correlations
parents might have a genetic predisposition to be intelligent and read skillfully; parents raise them in a comfortable way
evocative-genotype-environment correlations
a child's characteristics elicit certain types of environments (smiling children get better responses)
active (niche-picking) genotype-environment correlations
children seek out environments that they find compatible and stimulating
germinal period
period of prenatal development that takes place in the first two weeks after conception
embryonic period
occurs from two to eight weeks after conception
fetal period
begins two months after conception and lasts for seven months, on average
any agent that can potentially cause a birth defect or negatively alter cognitive and behavioral outcomes (prescription and nonprescription drugs, psychoactive drugs, incompatible blood types, maternal diseases, maternal diet and nutrition, emotional stat
apgar scale
assessing the health of newborns one to five minutes after birth
Brazelton neonatal behavioral assessment scale (NBAS)
performed 24 to 36 hours after birth to assess newborns nuerological development, reflexes, and reactions to people
low birth weight
less than five and a half pounds at birth (very low is below three)
stim: flash of light, puff of air, resp: closes both eyes
stim: sole of foot stroked, resp: fans out toes, twists foot in
stim: palms touched, resp: grasps tightly
moro (startle)
stim: sudden stimulation, such as hearing loud noise or being dropped, resp: startles, arches back, throws head back, f;lings out arms and legs and then rapidly closes them to center of body
piagetian concept of the incorporation of new information into existing schemes
adjusting schemes to fit new information and experiences
actions or mental representations that organize knowledge
object permanence
understanding that objects and events continue to exist, even when they cannot directly be seen, heard, or touched; sensorimotor stage (piaget)
basic cry
rythmic pattern that consists of a cry with a briefer silence, then a shorter whistle that is somewhat higher in pitch than the main cry, then another brief rest before the next cry
anger cry
variation of the basic cry, in which more excess air is forced through the vocal cords
pain cry
a sudden, long initial loud cry followed by breath holding; no preliminary moaning is present
reflesive smile
does not occur in response to external stimuli and appears during the first month after birth, usually during sleep
social smile
occurs in response to an external stimulus, typically a face in the case of the young infant, as early as four months in response to a caregiver's voice
stranger anxiety
tends to appear in the second half of the first year of life; fear and wariness of strangers
separation protest
peaks at about 15 months in US infants
social referencing
"reading" emotional cues in others to help determine how to act in a particular situation
behavioral style and characteristic way of emotionally responding
Chess and Thomas
temperament styles
easy child
generally in a positive mood, who quickly establishes regular routines in infancy, and who adapts easily to new experiences
difficult child
tends to react negatively and cry frequently, who engages in daily routines and who is slow to accept new experiences
slow-to-warm-up child
has a low activity level, is somewhat negative, and displays a low intensity of mood
securely attached babies
use the caregiver as a secure base from which to explore the environment
insecure avoidant babies
show insecurity by avoiding the caregiver
insecure resistant babies
often cling to the caregiver, then resist her by fighting against the closeness, perhaps by kicking or pushing away
insecure disorganized babies
show insecurity by being disorganized and disoriented
Harry Harlow
study revealed that feeding isn't as important as Freud thought; reared monkeys by "surrogate" mothers
rooting reflex
stim: cheek stroked or side of mouth touched, resp: turns head, opens mouth, begins sucking
stepping reflex
stim: infant held above surface and feet lowered to touch surface, resp: moves feet as if to walk
sucking reflex
stim: object touching mouth; resp: sucks automatically
swimming reflex
stim: infant put face down in water; resp: makes coordinated swimming movements
tonic neck reflex
stim: infant placed on back; resp: forms fists with both hands and usually turns head to the right (sometimes called the "fencer's pose" because the infant looks like it is assuming a fencer's position)
Mary Ainsworth
thought that the quality of babies' attachment experiences varies; created the Strange Situation
preoperational stage
(2-7 yrs) children begin to represent the world with words, images, and drawings and symbolic thought goes beyond simple connections of sensory information and physical action; egocentrism is present
(Piaget's theory) internalized sets of actions that enable children to do mentally what the formerly did physically
symbolic function substage
(Piaget) the child gains the ability to mentally represent an object that is not present (b/n 2 and 4 yrs)
inability to distinguish between one's own perspective and someone else's
the belief that inanimate objects have "lifelike" qualities and are capable of action
focusing of attention on one characteristic to the exclusion of all others
(Piaget's theory) awareness that altering an object's or a substance's appearance does not change its quantitative properties
Vygotsky's theory
social constructivist approach
Zones of Proximal Development
range of tasks that are too difficult for the child to master alone but that can be learned with guidance and assistance of adults or more skilled children
changing the level of support, adjusting the amount of guidance to fit the child's current performance (dialogue is an important tool of scaffolding in the zone of proximal development)
Initiative vs. guilt
characterizes early childhood; initiative to explore, but guilt is disappointment of bad behavior
moral development
involves thoughts, feelings, and actions regarding rules and conventions about what people should do in their interactions with other people
heteronomous morality
first stage of moral development, occuring from about four to seven years; justice and rules are conceived of as unchangeable properties of the world, removed from the control of people
autonomous morality
second stage of morality (Piaget), about ten years and up; the child becomes aware that rules and laws are created by people and that, in judging an action, one should consider the actor's intentions as well as the consequences
gender identity
the sense of being male or female, which most children acquire by the time they are three years old
gender role
a set of expectations that prescribes how females or males should think, act, and feel
social role theory
gender differences result from the contrasting roles of men and women
psychoanalytic theory of gender
(derived from Freud) that the preschool child develops a sexual attraction to the opposite-sex parent, but by about 5 or 6 years of age renounces this attraction because of anxious feelings, and subsequently identifies with the same-sex parent, unconsciou
social cognitive theory of gender
emphasizes that children's gender development occurs through the observation and imitation of gender behavior and through the rewards and punishments children experience for gender-appropriate and gender-inappropriate behavior
authoritarian parenting     
a restrictive punitive style in which parents exhort the child to follow their directions and to respect work and effort. the authoritarian parent places firm limits and controls on the child and allows little verbal exchange. Authoritarian parenting is a
authoritative parenting  
Parents encourage their children to be independent but still place limits and controls on their actions. Extensive verbal give-and-take is allowed, and parents are warm and nurturing toward the child. Authoritative parenting is associated with children
neglectful parenting  
The parent is very uninvolved in the child's life; it is associated with children's social incompetence, especially a lack of self-control.    
indulgent parenting
Parents are highly involved with their children, but place few demands or controls on them. Indulgent parenting is associated with children's social incompetence, especially a lack of self-control.
learning disability  
includes three components: 1) a minimum IQ level; 2) a significant difficulty in a school-related are (especially reading and/or math); and 3) exclusion of only severe emotional disorders, second-language background, sensory disabilities, and/or specific
1) inattention, 2) hyperactivity, and 3) impulsiveness
Individualized Education Plan (IEP)   
written statement that spells out a program tailored to a child with a disability. The plan should be 1) related to the child's learning capacity, 2) specially constructed to meet the child's individual needs and not merely a copy of what is offer
least restrictive environment (LRE)  
the concept that a child with a disability must be educated in a setting that is as similar as possible to the one in which children who do not have a disability are educated. 
Educating a child with special education needs full-time in the regular classroom.
concrete operational stage  
lasts from about 7 to 11 years, and children are able to perform concrete operations, reason logically, as long as reasoning can be applied to specific or concrete examples. 
the concrete operation that involves ordering stimuli along a quantitative dimension (such as length)
the ability to logically combine relations to understand certain conclusions
intelligence quotient  
a person's mental age divided by chronological age, multiplied by 100

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