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Western Civ Midterm- Chapter 8


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What was the state of Europe during the MIddle Ages?
it was an isolated, backward region, largely cut off from the more advanced civilizations.
What natural resources did Europe have?
-dense forests
rich black soil
-untapped veins of rich minerals
-seas for highways and exportation
-large rivers for trade and water wheels
What were the Germanic tribes who migrated across Europe like?
they were farmers and herders. They had no cities, and no written laws or customs.
What was the strongest and most successful Germanic tribe?
the Granks
Who was king of the Franks?
What Roman province did the Franks capture?
What was one of the major, and important things that Clovis did as a Frankish king?
he converted to Christianity which was the religion of many o fhis subjects. He therefore earned the support of the Gauls and gained an ally in the Roman Catholic Church.
What happened and who was involved in the Battle of Tours?
Frankish warriors defeated a Muslim army. Muslims advanced no farther into western Europe.
What was Charlemagnes nickname?
Charles the Great
Who was Charlemagne and what did he do?
He was a Frankish king who created an empire. He fought the Muslims and other groups. He crushed the rebellious Romans and was CROWNED EMPORER by the pope.
Who did Pope Leo III call for and what did he want done?
He wanted Charlemagne to crush the rebellious Romans.
What did Charlemagne encourage in his empire?
he tried to spread Christianity by workiing with the Chirch. missionaries won many converts.
What are Missi Domenici?
they were appointed provincial rulers sent out to check on roads, listen to grievences, and see that justice was done.
Where did Charlemagne hope to make his second capital?
Aachen "a second Rome"
What else did Charlemagne encourage in his empire?
education- revival of Latin learning
Who did Charlemagne appoint to run his chool at Aacen?
What did the Treaty of Verdun say?
it divided the empire into three regions.
Who were the Magyars?
a wave of nomadic people that overran Eastern Europe. they were eventually turned back.
Who were the most destructive raiders of Europe and describe their civilization.
the Vikings. They were expert sailors and ferocious fighters. They were traiders and explorers.
What system evolved out of a need for personal protection?
What are vassals?
lessor lords who pledged service and loyalty to the greater lord who ran the land.
What land did the vassals own?
What did the vassal pledge in exchange for land and protection?
loyalty and military service
Knight battles started off __________ and ended up ________________.
they started as dangerous real battles but then became mock battles.
Who was Elanor of Aquitane?
she took a hand in politics. she became queen of france and england.
What is chivalry?
the knights code of conduct. they must be generous and truthful. they could not attack other knights before they had their propper armor intact. chivalry also RASIED WOMEN TO A NEW STATUS. it applied to nobles only, however.
What were the wandering poets called who respected women?
What was the lord's estate called?
a manor- included the land and villages around it. peasants worked on the manor.
What were serfs?
peasant bound to the manors. they could not be bought and sold, but they were not free.
Many people of medieval europe believed in magical things such as...
fairies, spells, love potions, witches...
What was the western church called?
the roman catholic church
What kind of church was the Roman Catholic Church?
What were the lands in central Italy called which were controlled by the pope?
papal states
What are sacraments?
sacred rituals of the church. by participating in church sacraments, people would achieve salvation
what was canon law?
church law.
What happened to people who refused to obey church laws?
they could be excomunicated and therefore they could not recieve sacraments and achieve eternal salvation.
What happened if a powerful noble violated church law?
interdict- excluded an entire town, region, or kingdom from participating in most sacraments and from recieving christian burrial.
What are relics?
some churches housed these bones or blood of martyrs or other holy figures.
What was a tithe?
a tax required to be payed by all Christians. it was equal to 1/10 their income.
Who was Benedict?
a monk who founded the monestary, Monte Cassino. he drew up the Benedict Rule.
Where were the hospitals and "hotels" in the middle ages?
monestaries and convents
What very important thing did the monestaries and convents do?
thye preserved many ancient works of literature. they copied them.
Who was St. Patrick?
he was a monk who set up the Irish Church.
Who was St. Augustine
the first archbishop of canterbury.
Who was Hildegard?
she was a very religious nun who did a lot of things concerning religious purposes. she was important because she was a women and still took part in important religious things.
Who was Abbot Berno at Cluny?
he set out to end church abuses. he revived the benedict rule.
Who was Gregory VII?
he extended the Cluniac reforms and prohibited simony.
What is simony?
the selling of positions in the church.
Who was Francis of Assisi?
he was a monk who founded the first order of the friars- the franciscans.
Who was St. Dominic?
he founded another preaching order of the friars.
What were the Dominicans?
they dedicated their lives to educating people about Church doctrines and disputing the ideas of heretics.
Who were the Beguines?
they were a group of women who didnt have enough money to enter a convent so they created one themselves. they ministered to the poor and set up hospitals and shelters.
What happened to the Jews in the middle ages?
they were persecuted...anti semitism
Name some of the new farming technologies developed during the middle ages?
-iron plows instead of wooden ones
-new kind of harness (horses/oxen)
What was the 3 field system?
one field=grain
2nd field=legumes
3rd field=fallow
What was the effect of a mass production of food?
population increase
What were trade fairs and where were they located?
places along navigable rivers/trade routes where people who trade and perform entertainment acts.
What did medieval cities emerge from?
small centers of trade
What was a charter?
a written document to set out the rights and privileges of the town. merchants issued them
What is capital?
money for investment
What is a partnership?
group of merchants who pooled their funds to finance a large-scale venture
How did the insurance work?
for a small fee, a person would insure the merchant's shipment. If the goods arrived safely, the merchant only lost a small amount of money. If the shipment was lost or destroyed, however, the uderseer paid the merchant most of its value.
What is a bill of exchange?
a merchant deposited omney with a banker. the banker issued a bill of exchange. when the merchant got to a new town, he turned in the bill of exchange for cash. therefore he didnt have to cary around gold coins which could be easily stolen.
What is usury?
lending money
What were merchant guilds?
associations of merchants who passed laws, taxes, and decided what to spend gov. funds on
What other group of guilds soon emerged? describe them.
craft guilds. they were weavers, bakers, artisans...etc.
What are journeymen?
salaried workers who became guild members.

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