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LOM Ch. 18 gland conditions


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endemic goiter
Hyposecretion of the thyroid gland; enlargement of the thyroid due to deficiency of iron.
nodular or adenomatous goiter
Hypersecretion of the thyroid gland; a condition in which hyperplasia occurs as well as nodules and adenomas. Some patients develop hyperthyroidism with symptoms such as rapid pulse, tremors, nervousness, and excessive sweating.
thyrotoxicosis or Graves disease
Hypersecretion of the thyroid; the most common form of hyperthyroidism; hyperplasia of the thyroid parenchyma (glandular cells) occurs, leading to thyrotoxic symptoms; exophthalmos occurs as a result of the swelling of tissue behind the eyeball; cause unclear, but thought to be immunological disorder.
Hyposecretion of the thyroid; a form of hypothyroidism; an advanced hypothyroidism that occurs in adulthood. Atrophy of the thyroid gland occurs, and practically no hormone is produced. The skin becomes dry and puffy (edema) because of the collection of mucus-like material under the skin. Many patients also develop atherosclerosis because lack of thyroid hormone increases the quantity of blood lipids (fats).
Hyposecretion of the thyroid; a form of hypothyroidism. Extreme hypothyroidism during infancy and childhood leads to a lack of normal physical and mental growth. Skeletal growth is more inhibited than soft tissue growth, so the cretin has the appearance of an obese, short, and stocky child.
thyroid carcinoma
Cancer of the thyroid gland.
osteitis fibrosis cystica
Hypersecretion of the parathyroid; a form of hyperparathyroidism. Hypercalcemia occurs as calcium leaves the bones and enters the bloodstream. Bones become decalcified and susceptible to fractures and cysts. Kidney stones can occur as a result of hypercalcemia. The cause is often a parathyroid tumor.
Hyposecretion of the parathyroid; a form of hypoparathyroidism. Hypocalcemia results as calcium remains in bones and is unable to enter the bloodstream. This leads to muscle and nerve weakness with spasms of muscles (tetany).
adrenal virilism
Hypersecretion of the adrenal cortex. Excessive output of adrenal androgens. Adrenal hyperplasia or tumor can cause this condition in adult women. Symptoms include amenorrhea, and virilism, including hirsutism (excessive hair on the face and body), acne, and deepening of the voice.
Cushing syndrome
Hypersecretion of the adrenal cortex; a group of symptoms produced by excess of cortisol form the adrenal cortex. Obesity, moon-like fullness of the face, excess deposition of fat in the thoracic region of the back (so-called buffalo hump), hyperglycemia, hypernatremia, hypokalemia, ostoporosis, and hypertension occur with hypercortisolism. The cause may be excess ACTH secretion (Cushing syndrome) or tumor of the adrenal cortex.
Addison disease
Hyposecretion of the adrenal cortex; hypofunctioning of the adrenal cortex. Mineralcorticoids and glucocorticoids are produced in deficient amounts. Hypoglycemia (from deficient glucocorticoids), hyponatremia (excretion of large amounts of water and salts from deficient mineralocorticoids), fatigue, weakness, weight loss, low blood pressure, syncope and darker pigmentation of the skin (because of increased blood levels of MSH) are symptoms of the condition. Most cases are caused by an autoimmune adrenalitis.
Hypersecretion of the adrenal medulla; benign tumor of the adrenal medulla. Tumor cells produce excess secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine. Symptoms are hypertension, palpatations, severe headaches, sweating, flushing of the face, and muscle spasms.
Hypersecretion of the islet cells of the pancreas; excess secretion of insulin causing hypoglycemia. The cause may be a tumor of the pancreas (benign adenoma or carcinoma) or an overdose of insulin. Hypoglycemia occurs as insulin draws sugar out of the bloodstream. Fainting spells, convulsions, and loss of consciousness are common because a minimal level of blood sugar is necessary for proper mental functioning.
diabetes mellitus
Hyposecretion of the islet cells of the pancreas; lack of insulin secretion or resistance of insulin in promoting sugar, starch, and fat metabolism in cells.
Hypersecretion of the anterior pituitary; enlargement of the extremities caused by hypersecretion of the anterior pituitary after puberty. An excess of growth hormone (GH) is produced by adenomas of the pituitary gland that occur during adulthood. Bones in the hands, feet, face, and jaw grow abnormally large, producing a characteristic Frankenstein-type facial appearance.
Hypersecretion of the anterior pituitary; Hyperfunctioning of the pituitary gland before puberty, leading to abnormal overgrowth of the body. Benign adenomas of the pituitary gland that occur before a child reaches puberty produce an excess of growth hormone.
Hyposecretion of the anterior pituitary; congenital hyposecretion of growth hormone; hypopituitary dwarfism; The children affected are normal mentally, but their bones remain small and underdeveloped.
Hyposecretion of the anterior pituitary; all pituitary hormones are deficient. Tumors of the sella turcica as well as arterial aneurysms may be etiological factors. Functions of target glands (adrenals, thyroid, ovaries, and testes) are also adversely affected.
syndrome of inappropriate ADH (SIADH)
Hypersecretion of the posterior pituitary; excessive secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH). Hypersecretion of ADH produces excess water retention in the body. Tumor, drug reactions, and head injury are some of the possible causes.
diabetes insipidus
Hyposecretion of the posterior pituitary; insufficient secretion of antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin). Deficient antidiuretic hormone causes the kidney tubules to fail to hold back (reabsorb) needed water and salts. Clinical symptoms include polyuria and polydipsia.

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