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What Army manual covers first aid for soldiers?
FM 21-11
What is first aid?
It's the first care given to injured soldiers before medical personnel are available
What are the four life saving steps?
1. Clear the airway and restore breathing
2. Stop the bleeding
3. Treat and dress the wounds to prevent infection.
4. Prevent shock.
What are the three types of bleeding and how are they recognized?
Arterial-blood is bright red and spurts with the heartbeat.
Venous- Blood is dark red and flows in a steady stream.
Capillary- Blood oozes from the wound.
How do you stop bleeding?
Apply a field dressing.
Apply manual pressure.
Elevate the injured limb.
Apply a pressure dressing.
Apply a tourniquet.
Whose first aid dressing should be used on the casualty?
The casualty's bandage.
When shoud a tourniquet be used to stop bleeding?
As a last resort when everything else has failed to stop the bleeding, or when an arm or leg has been cut off.
What are the four types of burns?
Electrical, thermal, chemical, and laser.
What is the single most common cause of airway blockage?
The tounge.
Where is a tourniquet applied?
Around the limb, between the wound and the heart. Placed 2-4in above the wound but never directly on a joint.
How tight should the tourniquet be?
Tight enough to stop the bright red bleeding.
What should be done to indicate a casualty has a tourniquet?
Mark the casualty's forehead with a "T" and note the time of application.
When should you remove a tourniquet?
Define manual pressure:
Firm pressure on the dressing for 5-10 minutes.
What is HIV?
Human Immunovirus.
What should be applied if a bleeding continues after applying a field dressing?
Apply manual pressure then a pressure dressing.
What are the two types of artificial respiration?
Mouth to mouth, and the back pressure arm lift method.
Should a causalty be given water to drink?
A casualty should not eat or drink.
What are signs of shock?
Cool, pale and damp skin; confusion; nausea or vomiting; restlessness or nervousness; loss of blood; thirst; fast breathing; fainting spells; excessive perspiration; blotched or bluish skin-especially around the mouth.
When should a casualty not be placed in the shock position?
When there is a head injury, abdominal wound, or unsplinted fractured leg.
What is th treatment for shock?
Move to cover is possible; lay casualty on their back; elevate the legs; loosen clothing; prevent chilling or overheating; keep the casualty calm.
what is the measure of checking the tightness of bandages?
Two fingers should slip under the bandage.
What items should never be used for a tourniquet?
Wire or string
What procedure is used to restore heartbeat?
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
When it becomes neccessary to give CPR what is the ratio of pumps to breaths for one-man rescue and two-man rescue?
One-man 15 pumps/2 breaths
two-man 5 pumps/1 breath
When may resuscitation measures be stopped?
When a doctor tells you to stop
When you are relieved by others
When you can't physically continue
When the casualty starts breathing on her own.
What is the correct method of artificial respiration used during a NBC attack and why?
The back pressure army lift method because during a NBC attack both of you will be masked.
When is a casualty's clothing not removed in order to expose a wound?
When in a NBC environment, or when the clothing is stuck to the wound.
What is unique about type "O" blood?
It is the universal donor. Everyone can use it.
Why should wounds be treated as soon as possible?
To control bleeding and protect the wound from contamination by germs.
What is a heat injury?
General deydration of the body brought on by loss of water and salt through activity in the heat.
What are the three categories of heat injuries?
Heat cramps, heat exhaustion, and heat stroke.
Describe the signs of heat cramps:
Muscle cramps of the legs, arms or abdomen, excessive sweating.
Describe the treatment for heat cramps?
Move the casualty into shade, loosen clothing and give cool water.
Name the signs of heat exhaustion/
Pale, moist and cool, clammy skin; headache, muscle cramps, excessive sweating, weakness, nausea, dizziness, cramps, urge to defecate, chills, rapid breathing, confusion, tingling in the hands or feet.
How shoud heat exhaustion be treated?
move the casualty to a cool, shaded area, loosen any tight fitting clothing, have him drink a canteen of cool water, elevate the legs and monitor.
Describe signs and symptoms of heat stroke?
The person stops sweating, skin is dry and hot, pulse is fast, headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting and mental confusion, weakness, seizures.
How should heat stroke be treated?
Immerse the casualty in the coldest water available and remove clothing and wet entire body while fanning, transport to the nearest medical facility.
What are the two most common types of fractures?
Open (compound), closed (simple)
What is an open fracture?
A broken bone that breakes through the skin.
What should be done first for an open fracture?
Stop the bleeding.
What are the signs and symptoms of fractures?
Pain at the site, discoloration and deformity.
Why is a fracture immobillized?
To prevent the sharp edges of the bone from moving and cutting tissue, muscle, blood vessels and verves. Doing thsi reduces pain and helps prevent and control shock.
What is shock and why is it dangerous?
Shock is inadequate blood flow t the vital organs and tissues. if shock is uncorrected it may result in death even though the injury or conditions causing shock appear to be less than fatal.
What is the basic proven principle in splinting fractures?
Splint them where they lie.
What does the key word "COLD" mean in cold weather protection?
C- keeping CLEAN
L- wear LOOSE clothing in layers
D- keeping it DRY
Name five types of cold and wet weather injuries?
Frostbite: actual freezing of a part of the body.
Hypothermia: lowering of the body temperature.
Immersion foot/trench foot: occurs between 32 and 50 degrees.
Chilblain: mild form of frostbite.
Snow blindess: pain in and around the eyes.
Describe the signs and symptoms of frostbite?
Loss of sensation or numb feeling in any part of the body.
Sudden whitening of the skin in the affected area, followed by a momentary tingling feeling.
Redness of skin in light skinned soldiers; grayish coloring in dark skinned soldiers.

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