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Job Specification
Spells out the qualifications necessary for an incumbant to have a reasonable chance of being able to perform the job.
Scatter diagram
Measure of association that indicates the relationship between data items using x and y axes.
In which of the following types of interviews is each applicant asked the same questions?

A. Patterned
B. Nondirective
C. Structures
D. Behavioral
Define: Person based pay system
Pay employees for hat they are capable of doing rather than they tasks they currently perform.
Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act (WARN)
Requires employers to give a minimum of 60 days notice if a plant is to close or if mass layoffs will occur.
The Toxic Substance Control Act of 1976 requires that

A. employees be required to wearprotective equipment.
B. employers adopt sex-specific fetal protection polocies.
C. physical conditions be evaluated by an outside consultant.
certain chemicals be pretested for safety.
Career planning
Refers to the actions and activities that individuals perform in order to give direction to their work life.
Which of the following statements about the Taft-Hartley Act is true?

A. It allowed employers to file unfair labor practice charges against unions.
B. It established the NLRB to encourage growth of the union movement.
C. It prohibite
It allowed emploers to file unfair labor practice charges against unions.
The ability of an instrument to measure consistently.
The discipline that studies how adults learn.
Bar-graph summary of variation in a set of data.
Functions of Management
Griggs vs. Duke Power (1971)
This case recognized adverse impact discrimination and establised two critital points: employment discrimination need not be overt or intentional to be present and the burden of proof lies with the employer to show that any employment requirement is directly job-related.
A project manger would be more inclined to use a PERT chart rather than a Gantt chart when the manger needs to:

A. assign particular tasks to team members.
B. monitor the exact time that each step of the project takes.
C. plan the de
show the critial path

(note: PERT = critical path)
Decreasing returns
Type of learning curve in which the amount of learning or skill level increases rapidly at first and then the rate of improvement slows.
Define Term:

Succession Plans
Anticipate managerial requirements and develop high quality employees to satisfy needs.
A manager always hires young, attractive women as receptionists. This is an example of:

A. disparate treatment
B. adverse impact
C. reverse discrimination
D. sexual harassment
disparate treatment
Environmental scanning
A process that systematically surveys, identifies, and interperts relevant data to identify external opportunities and threats.
Control chart
Illustration of variations from normal in a situation over time.
Common law is based on:

A. EEOC directives
B. congressional legislation
C. court decisions
D. torts
court decisions
Adverse impact
When rules applied to all employees have a different and more inhibiting effect on women and minorty groups than on the majority; occurs when the selection rate for a protected class is less than 80% of the rate for the class with highest selection rate; also known as disparate impact.
Matrix Structure
combines two diffeent organizational designs to gain the benefits of both. Dual chain of command. Some employees report to two managers rather than one.
Pareto chart
Shows how several items contribute to a total effect.
Which of the following laws restricts arbitrary injunctions against nonviolent union activity?

A. Taft-Hartley Act
B. Labor-Management Reporting & Disclosure Act
C. Norris-LaGuardia Act
D. Railway Labor Act
Norris-LaGuardia Act
Judgmental forecasts
Uses information from the past and present to predict expected future conditions; include managerial estimates, Delphi technique, and nominal group technique.
Which of the following marketing elements is involved with supply chain management?

A. Place
B. Promotion
C. Price
D. Product
Place - place is distribution
When an employer makes conditions for an employee so intolerable that the employee resigns, it is known as

A. disparate treatment
B. negligent hiring
C. employment at will
D. constructive discharge
constructive discharge
Define Term:

Green-circle jobs/rates
Green-circle rats are the opposite of red-circle rates-an employee's pay is below the minimum of the range.
Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures
Assists employers in complying with federal regulations against discriminatory actions.
Gross profit margin
Measures the difference between what it costs a product and what an organization is selling it for.
OD - Organizational Development
Process of enhancing the effectiveness of an organization and the well being of its members through planned interventions.
Which of the following is not one of the three main factors of the Hay System?

A. experience
B. know-how
C. problem solving
D. accountability
Which of the following regulations applies only to the federal government or federal contractors?

A. Executive Orders 11246, 11375 and 11478
B. Age Discrimination in Employment Act
C. Family and Medical Leave Act
D. Uniform Guid
Executive Orders.....
Strategic planning
The art and science of formulating, developing, implementing, and evaluating cross-functional decisions that enable an organization to achieve its objectives.
Halo effect / Horn effect
Occurs when an employee is extremely competent in one area and is therfore rated high in all categories. Opposisite is true for the Horn Effect.
Indirect compensation is represented by which of the following:

A. Social Security benefits
B. Short term incentive pay
C. Differential pay
D. Merit pay
Social Security Benefits
Title VII of the Civil Rights Act (1964)
Prohibitsdiscrimination or segration based on race, color, national orgin, religion, and gender in ALL terms and conditions of employment.
Product Differentiation Strategy
Goal: To set the product apart from the competition.
Selection is the process of

A. hiring the most suitable candidate for a position.
B. identifying the top applicants for a position.
C. hiring the bes-qualified candidate for the position.
D. finding additional minority applicant
hiring the most suitable candidate for a position.
The MOST basic reason employees join unions is to:

A. belong to a group with similar goals and ideals.
B. help guarantee a safe, secure work environment.
C. exercise their leadership abilities.
D. fulfill their needs for self-es
help guarantee a safe, secure work environment.
Job Analysis
A systematic study of jobs to determine what activities and responsibilities they include, their relative importance and relationshop with other jobs, the personal qualifications necessary for performance of the jobs, and the conditions under which the work is performed.
MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheets)
Must be provided by manufacturers for every hazardous substance; employers must evaluate the chemicals and inform employees of hazardous properties.
Contract error
Occurs when an employee's rating is based on how his or her performance compares to that of another employee rather than objective standards.
Define Term:

Red-Circle Jobs/Rates
Red-circle rates are those in which the pay rates are above the range maximum.
Rehabilitation Acot (1973)
Prohibits discrimination based on physical or mental disabilities. Applies to the federal government or federal contractors. Requires employers to take affirmative action to hire qualified disable people.
Define Term:

Agency Shop
A union security provision requiring both union members and nonunion members to pay dues to the union.
Essential function
The primary job duties that a qualified person must be able to perform, either with or without accommodiation; a function may be considered essential because it is required in a job or because it is highly specialized.
Concentrated Structures
Help accomplish goals with organizational units. Supplement esixting organizational structures. Include: committees, task forces, project teams.
Which of the following learning curves describes how most routine tasks are learned?

A. Plateau
B. S-shaped
C. Increasing returns
D. Decreasing returns
Decreasing returns
Which of the following is prohibited by the NLRA?

A. Arbitrary injunctions
B. Collective bargaining
C. Employer domination of unions
D. Yellow-dog contracts
Employer domination of unions
Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA)
Prohibits discrimination against job applicants on the basis of national orgin or citizenship, establishes penalties for hiring illegal aliens.
Distance between hightes and lowest scores.
Hygiene factors
According to Herzberg, those factors that surround the job; they make up the environment to which the employees work.
Task significane is the extent to which a job

A. offers workers freedom and autonomy.
B. is meaningful and important to others.
C. requires completion of a "whole" unit of work.
D. requires clear and direct feedback.
is meaningful and important to others.
Privacy Act
Specifies that a government entity must have a person's signed release before giving information about that individual to someone else.
OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Act)
Established the first national policy for safety and health and continues to deliver standards that employers must meet to guarantee the health and safety of their employees.
Career development
Process by which individuals progress through a series of stages in their careers, each of which is characterized by a relatively unique set of issues, themes, and tasks.
Right-to-work laws allow states to:

A. establish emergency strike provisions when a strike threatens public welfare.
B. maintain a list of arbitrators to assist in contract settlement.
C. pay less than the federal minimum wage.
forbid compulsory union membership.
Behavioral interview
Type of interview in which the interviewer focures on how the applicant previously handled real work situations.
Vision statements
Vivid, guiding images of an organization's success.
Organizational assessment
Identifies the knowledge, skills, and abilities employees will need in the future as organizations and jobs change.
OSHA's General Duty Clause requires that:

A. employees report unsafe working conditions to OSHA.
B. employers provide hazard free work environments.
C. employers develop standards if none exist for their industries.
D. employees
employers provide hazard free work environments.
Aptitude tests
measure the general ability to learn or acquire a new skill.
Project Life Cycle
1. Conception
2. Planning, Scheduling, Monitoring, & Control
3. Evaluation

2. Program DESIGN
Refers to a five-step instructional design proces that governs the development of HRD programs.
Direct compensation includes which of the following:

A. flexible benefits
B. long-term incentive pay
C. worker's compensation
D. unpaid leave
Long Term incentive pay
Construct validity
The extent to which a seletion device measure the theoretical construct or trait.
Cost Advantage (Operational Excellence) Strategy
Goal: To be the low-cost producer.
Human Resource Development
Set of systematic and planned activities designed by and organization to provide its members with the necessary skills to meet current and future job demands.
Define Term:

Means of egress
An OSHA standard that provides guidelines for preparing an emergency action plan and includes specifications regarding exits and maintenance of emergency systems; also known as Emergency Exit Procedure Administration (MSHA).
Job Description
Summarizes the most important features of a job, including a decsription of the work that details the required tasks, knowledge, skills, abilities, responsibilities, and reporting structure.
Relationship between two variables
An employment application may include sections dealing with

A. arrest records
B. credit ratings
C. authorization of information
D. family status
authorization of information
Decentralization works best in organizations where

A. a uniform policy is important.
B. contracts are negotiated with outside agents.
C. a quick response to problems is desired.
D. employees do not want additional responsibility
a quick response to problems is desired.
Criterion-realted validity
Refers t the link between a selection device and job performance; requires a careful analysis of the job itself.
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Analytical tool to measure the effectiveness of HR activities.
What is the difference between training activities and developmental activities?
Training activities prepare employees for their present jobs; developmental activities prepare employees for future jobs.
If two variables are related, when one changes by a certain amount - the other changes
Glass ceiling
Generall describes the phenomenon of minorities and women being blocked by an invisible barrier from attaining senior executive positions.
An organization that places more emphasis on training and formalizes policies and procedures is in what phase of the organizational life cycle?

A. Maturity
B. Growth
C. Introduction
D. Decline
Organizational culture
Shared attitudes and perceptions in an organization.
Mid-term objectives
Serve a purpose similar to short-term objectives but are completed in one to three years.
EEOC - Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
The government agency set up to administer the Equal Employment Opportunity Acot of 1972, which expanded coverage of Title VII.
Gnatt chart
Project planning tool that graphically displays activities of a project in sequential order and plots them against time.
Bottom-line concept
Specifies that an employer is not required to evaluate each componenet of the selection process individually if the end result of the process is predictive of future job performance.
Balanced Scorecard
Links business strategies with day to day activities-tracks progress, reinforce accountability, and prioritize improvement opportunities.
Job Enlargement
Occurs when employees are doing different tasks within the same job.
People Differentiation Strategy
Goal: To develop competitive advantage by investing in human capital.
The ADA applies to

A. employers with 15 or more employees
B. employers with 25 or more employees
C. employers who contract with the federal government
D. all employers, regardless of the size of the company.
employers with 15 or more employees.
Customer Intimacy Strategy
Goal: To personalize and customize products to meet unique customer needs.
Albemarle Paper vs. Moody
1975 court ruling that items used to validate employment requirements must be job-related.
Customer Structure
are built around easily identifiable, distinct markets.
Delphi Technique
Uses information provided by a group; group members take turns presenting forecast assumptions and the forecast is revised intil a composite emerges that incorporates many of their assumptions.
OSHA gives employees the right to:

A. file an unfair labor practice charge.
B. request an OSHA investigation.
C. override employer safety procedures.
D. refuse to wear safety equipment.
request an OSHA investigation.
Qualitative Research
Utilizes open-ended interviewing. Uncovers attitudes, opinions, and feelings. Is best used for: depth of information; brainstorming and idea generation.
Mission statements
Specify what activities an organization intends to pursue and what course management has charted for the future.
Which of the following sytems is generally associated with cumulative trauma disorder?

A. Wrist pain
B. Respiratory problems
C. Rash
D. Nausea
Wrist pain
Describe what is important to an organization, dictate employee behavior, and create the organization's culture.
What are the four stages in an Organizational Life Cycle?
1. Introduction
2. Growth
3. Maturity
4. Decline
The assignment of a level of probability for all types of losses to which an organization may be exposed is known as:

A. impact assessment.
B. risk containment.
C. vulnerability analysis.
D. loss-prevention planning.
vulnerability analysis
Short term objectives
Milestones that must be achieved, usually within six months to one year, in order to reach long-term objectives.
Standard deviation
How much scores are spreadh out around a mean
Mean =

Mode =

Median =
Mean = average

Mode = value/freq.

Median = below 50% of the score lies
HR audit
A process to measure the effectiveness and efficiency of programs and positions.
A company commits to answering all phone calls within 15 seconds. Which operational concept deals with observing and documenting actual results?

A. Capacity
B. Standards
C. Scheduling
D. Control
Control - after the fact evaluation.
Design Type: Quasi-Experimental
Before and after comparasions between groups
PERT Chart
Project planning tool that provides a road map or diagram of project events mainly to illustrate the time needed to complete a project.
The ability of an instrument to measure what it is intended to measure.
Human capital
Consists of the combines knowledge, skills, and experience of a company's employes.
Understanding Change in People
(change cycle)
Action plans
The detailed steps a unit, department, or team will take in order to achieve short-term objectives.
The statement "We want to stay close to the customer" is an example of a

A. strategy
B. mission statement
C. vision statement
D. value
What are the four phases of the strategic planning process?
1. strategy formulation
2. strategy development
3. strategy implementation
4. strategy evaluation
Long-term objectives
Specific results, accomplished in three to five years, that an organization seeks to achieve in pursuing its mission.
SWOT analysis
A vehicle for collecting information on an organization's current strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.
Specific point that has a given percentage of cses below it.
Whistle Blowers
Employees who disclose illegal employer conduct to appropriate government agencies.
Income Statement
Explains revenues, expenses, and profts over a specified period of time.

Bais form of the statment is:
Revenues - Expenses = Net Income
Balance Sheet
Summarizes the firm's financial position.

Basic form of the sheet is:
Assets = Liabilites + Equity
Authority resides with upper management
Authority is shared with lower levels.

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