This site is 100% ad supported. Please add an exception to adblock for this site.

Human Development, Chapter 9


undefined, object
copy deck
learning disabilities
Specific learning disorders that lead children to achieve poorly in school, despite an average or above-average IQ. Believed to be due to faulty brain functioning.
A greater-than-20-percent increase over average body weight, based on the individual's age, sex, and physical build.
divergent thinking
The generation of multiple and unusual possibilities when faced with a task or problem. Associated with creativity.
constructivist classroom
A classroom that is based on the educational philosophy that students construct their own knowledge. Often grounded in Piaget's theory. Consists of richly equipped learning centers. small groups and individuals solving problems they choose for themselves and a teacher who guides and supports in response to children's needs.
dynamic assessment
An approach consistent with Vygotsky's concept of the zone of proximal development, in which purposeful teaching is introduced into the testing situation to find out what the child can attain with social support.
cognitive maps
Mental representations of familiar large-scale spaces, such as neighborhood or school.
educational self-fulfilling prophecy
The idea that children may adopt teachers' positive or negative attitudes toward them and start to live up to these views.
dominance hierarchy
A stable ordering of group members that pre diets who will win when conflict arises.
attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
A childhood disorder involving inattentiveness, impulsivity, and excessive motoractivity. Often leads to academic failure and social problems.
phonics approach
An approach to beginning reading instruction that emphasizes simplified reading materials and training in the basic rules for translating written symbols into sounds.
full inclusion
Placement of students with learning difficulties in regular classrooms for the entire school day.
phonological awareness
The ability to reflect on and manipulate the sound structure of spoken language, as indicated by sensitivity to changes in sounds within words and to incorrect pronunciation. A strong predictor of reading and spelling achievement.
In Piaget's theory, the internal rearrangement and linking together of schemes so that they form a strongly interconnected cognitive system. In information processing, the memory strategy of grouping together related items.
emotional intelligence
Individual differences in the capacity to process and adapt to emotional information. Predicts many aspects of adjustment and life success.
concrete operational stage
Piaget's third stage, during which thought is logical, flexible, and organized in its application to concrete information. However, the capacity for abstract thinking is not yet present. Spans the years from 7 to 11.
Exceptional intellectual ability. Includes high IQ, high creativity, and specialized talent.
reciprocal teaching
An approach to teaching based on Vygotsky's theory in which a teacher and two to four students form a collaborative learning group and take turns leading dialogues on the content of a text passage, using four cognitive strategies: questioning, summarizing, clarifying, and predicting. Creates a zone of development in which reading comprehension improves.
The ability to produce work that is I original yet appropriate-something others have not thought of that is useful in some way.
cognitive self-regulation
The process of continuously monitoring progress toward a goal, checking outcomes, and redirecting unsucessful efforts.
The memory strategy of repeating information.
mild mental retardation
Substantially below-average intellectual functioning, resulting in an IQ between 55 and 70 and problems in adaptive behavior, or skills of everyday living.
Placement of students with learning difficulties into regular classrooms for part of the school day.
convergent thinking
Thinking that involves arriving at a single correct answer to a problem. The type of cognition emphasized on intelligence tests.
The memory strategy of creating a relation between two or more items that are not members of the same category.

Deck Info