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Lateral Hypothalamus (LH) =
Hunger on switch.
There are literally switches in your brain, one tells you that you are hungry; the other tells you that you are not hungry any more.
They are activated on the basis of blood sugar levels.
The other means to access the unconscious was through dreams.
The ID would be symbolized through your dreams. Freud believed that most things were rooted in Sex. This was partly due to the period of history that he lived in. He believed symbols which represented your desire related to sex. Freud believed most were caused by repression.
he primary use of trait theory is
to evaluate people as a guidance couselor or to evaluate perspective employee. So that's the primary application.
And then when you learn gthe third thing, the proactive interference of what you learned the second is interfering with what you are trying to learn now.
And it is interferring retroactively with what you just learned.
nother word for openness is flexible, meaning, are you willing to try new things or are you stuck in your ways. If somebody says "Hey, there's a new resturant, you want to go try it?" Someone who would be "high" in Openness would probably say "Yeah, that sounds good." And somebody who is "low" would say " Nah, I don't want to go there, I'd like tgo just go to my resturant."
you ever hear the terms intravert and extravert? Extraversion is somebody who is outgoing. An intravert is somebody who may be considered to be shy, they are not real comfortable with people. It takes them a while to know people.
There are two structures, remember I talked about the term nucleus,
nucle- refers to a particular neuron or it could refer to a collection of neurons that are all engaged in the same structure.
And the average (50th percentile), and you are talking about, lets say neuroticism, "nuts",
omeone where everything freaks them out. If you have an average level you are at the 50th percentile, if you are higher, then you are to the right and if you have less, you are to the left of the 50th percentile.
ou make these choices between what you are learning,
what your logical mind has determine, what is the consequernces of different behaviors will be, which is interface with these feelings or emotions. That is what prioritizes, that what enables you to determine what it is that you should do.
reud proposed that in addition to conscious, preconscious, and unconscious components of our psyche,
he psyche also is composed of three structures: the id, ego, and superego. Some of these structures operate unconsciously, and others are within our awareness.
Sublimation is redirecting your sexual desires or sexual energy into something that is socially acceptable, this is the only mechanism that Freud considers to be healthy. Freud considers Sublimation to be the basis for all culture. You want to have sex but you can't, so you paint a painting. You want to have sex, but you can't so you write a song.
One of the aspects of behavior is
why do people do the things they do? What makes people do the things they do? Why do they do it?
Autonomic arousal is part of your brain that regulates those involuntary response like your heart rate,
and your breathing and your blood pressure. Remember there are two modes of the Autonomic nervous system, what are they? Sympathetic and Parasympethetic. Parasympathetic is the "Rest or Digest" and the Sympathetic is the "Fight or Flight". The Autonomic arousal is moving towards the sympathetic response, where your heart starts beating, and your blood pressure starts going up, your pupils will dialate, you will get more blood flowing into your peripheral muscles so that you are able to fight or flight.
For instance, the brain only runs on sugar called glucose.
The level of glucose in the blood is monitored by the Hypothalamus. When it drops below a certain level, a preset level. Just like your thermostat, you set your temperature you want the heat at 72 degrees. There's a genetic setting tells the brain at what level you should start to get hungry, and it also keeps tract of how much fat you have in your body.
Professor recalls early on experiences with an Italian friend's mother's
cooking and the large amount of food
My first wife, she worked in an office with 5 other agents.
But 4 out of 5 bookings came from her. So she would be talking to 3 travel agents at a time. She was doing 3 or 4 times more work than anybody else in her office. Similar experience while at the DMV where some agents were like boom, boom, boom. They were handling many more clients that others. Then there are those that finish with some one, but tghen they kind of drag out and slow down on purpose, before they would light up to handle another client. It's like they were trying to avoid doing work.
It is capitalized on very unscrupulously by some medical manufacturing companies,
hat the idea that if you say this "that I'm full." The idea that when your stomach is full, that's why you don't want to eat any more. So they have these gastric stapling, that makes the stomach smaller so you can't eat as much food. Now they have a gastric band that they can put around. And the reality is, and they don't even talk about it, it doesn't make you not hungry, it just makes you not able to eat any more. It just means after you eat a little bit, you will get sick if you eat any more. So the people start eating less, but they aren't hungry any less. It's just as uncomfortable, the choice is to either feel uncomfortably hungry or throw up. Because if they eat any more, they would throw up.
Approach, approach is when there's two things you want to do,
but you can only do one, so you've got to decide which one.
Emotion is different from a mood,
mood is longer lasting while emotion is fof a shoter duration. Short lasting.
I tried to illustrate this by using the beach: waves vs. tide.
The waves crashing every couple of seconds. That is like an emotion. An emotion can turn into a mood. When you find out somebody that you'd cared about somehow dies. You'll have an emotion, that emotion may be depression. The immediate response is the emotion.
he phasing out of the consciousness (defense mechanism). This uses psychic energy. The increased use of psychic energy causes many of the physical symptoms. (i.e. lead to headaches, fatigue, irritable bowel syndrome, etc.). To find the cause, you may be able to release the psychic energy thus reduce the repression and the disorder.
As for exercise and weight,
Basal Metabolism Rate (Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the amount of energy expended while at rest in a neutrally temperate environment, in the post-absorptive state (meaning that the digestive system is inactive, which requires about twelve hours of fasting in humans). The release of energy in this state is sufficient only for the functioning of the vital organs, such as the heart, lungs, brain and the rest of the nervous system, liver, kidneys, sex organs, muscles and skin. BMR decreases with age and with the loss of lean body mass. Increased cardiovascular exercise and muscle mass can increase BMR. Illness, previously consumed food and beverages, environmental temperature, and stress levels can affect one's overall energy expenditure, and can affect one's BMR)is what is involved. Thyroid glands is whats involved with the Basal metabolism rate. And there are conditions which may impact that such as hypothyroidism.
Although we are not aware of this internal struggle between the id,
superego, and ego, Freud proposed that it influences much of our behavior.
You can chart these people, if you put the traits. And then do testing to evaluate them
ou can come up with a bar graph which represents their personality.
Freud believed that sometimes there were thoughts and motivation,
motivation, drives that were unacceptable to consciousness. The ID is entirely unconcious, and the ID has these drives and motivations that make you want to do things that you are not suppose to do. So in order to protect oneself from these drives, Freud believed we engaged in these defense mechanisms.
reud believes we don't have free will, he believed in determinism;
we need to understand the unconscious in order to understand the cause of the behavior. One of the means to access the unconscious was through dreams. The ID would be symbolized through your dreams. Freud believed that most things were rooted in Sex. This was partly due to the period of history that he lived in. He believed symbols which represented your desire related to sex. Freud believed most were caused by repression.
There are many aspects of personality,
one aspect of personality is temperment. Remember we looked at temperment in the experiment with Thomas Chess & Birch, they did this longitudinal study and they saw that temperment for most people remained the same. In their study infants who were easy remained that kind of a person, those that were difficult remained that. So one of the aspects of personality is this thing that we call temperment or nature. And it does seem like it is almost entirely genetic.
You will see even in families, different kinds of temperment,
an easy going kind of a temperment, an angry temperment getting upset loosing temper, and its not - and I want you to undedrstand that we just didn't appear, we are descendents of creatures that existed before us; so we have a lot of similarities with other life forms on the planet, particularly other mammals. So if you have cats or dogs, you should be awsare that they have personality. Your puppies and your kittens, some are very affectionate, some are a little stand offish, and of course how they behave is going to be affected by their environment. But there are different natures or temperments in different animals including human beings. This is the under lying force or the underlying current on which the various behaviors and traits and characteristics are super imposed.
And that feeling is coming from circuits in the brain.
hat's what emotion does, in dramatic fashion or in less dramatic fashion. It places a relative value on the behavior, with out emotion, its almost impossible to figure outr what to do. Unless you decide on a completely logical basis. How would you decide what of three things, which friends to hang out with? Which movie to watch? What food to eat? Because you feel more like pasta tonight.
You identify with someone or something else, where you experience pleaseure, you live vicarrously through the accomplishment of others.
ID is entirely unconscious.
Freud believes that the EGO which develops in the first couple of years attempts to satisfy the ID in ways that will keep the organism from getting in trouble. The SUPEREGO is like your conscience which tells you want to do and what not to do. Freud believed that the EGO attempts to moderate between the SUPEREGO and the ID to strike a balance for the "self"
You take a test to evaluate personality, there are a couple of tests.
One of them is the (MMPI) the Minnasota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. And it is a test which determines whether you are high or low on different traits. It could be the big five, they use a little different model. But you answer questions, like I like to be around people, I loose my temper, it's a long test. It's like 700 questions, it takes a few hours to take this test. These tests, this approach to personality, this trait theory is used a lot by guidance counselors and people that work in the personnel department of many companies. People who do what is called industrial organizational physchology. Trying to determine, like a guidance counselor trying to determine what major would be best for you, what kind of things you are interested in. And based on your performance on a trait test like the MMPI, they can determine that you would good in computers, or you would be good in foreign languages or something like that. Based on the things you say you like or dislike, and like I say, this tests and other tests of trait, they kind of determine where you stand relative to the average. If you have more or less of a particular trait. So I'm going tgo talk about these traits
But in linited amounts anxiety is adaptive.
Anxiety is what makes you prepare for the future. If you don't have any anxiety, either you smoke too much reapher or you have the personality where you just don't worry about things. If you don't have that anxiety, you don't worry, if you're not Conscientiousness, then you are not going to do the work that it takes to be successful. So somebody that's high in Conscientiousness, is somebody who is probably going to do well in school, and will probably be their boss's pet at work, cause they work and work and work.
So sometimes your prefrontal cortex can out weight your desire for sex,
drugs and rocknroll. And for other people that never happens. But that is the essence of what emotions are. So in terms of motivation, it is feelings.
Example: Depressions is an example due to
I live in a Coop, we have a board of directors, and we have our annual meeting.
nything that I suggest, they'll find a reason to reject it. It doesn't matter, anything. Then six months later, somebody else suggests it, they would think it was a bright idea, if they've forgotten that I'd suggested it earlier. But if tghey remember that I'd suggested it, then it is still a bad idea. Baker suggested it. (Space to be used as gym as illustration)
In experiments done with rats,
f you take away the Lateral Hypothalamus (LH) it will cause the rat to stop eating and starve to death. If you take away Ventral Medial Hypothalamus (VMH) the rat will keep eating, it will get bigger and bigger and pretty soon you may get a 15 pound rat.
When the team wins, that's cool. Sport fans that feel "We're number one."
What makes you number one? Maybe the team is number one, the members of the team maybe number one. But you, why are you number one? You could be happy for them, but why would you be number one? You've nothing to do with the game, you bought the ticket and you sit in the stand, how does that make you number one? What it is, is this behavior called Identification, you can identify with a group. You identify with a team.
Subjective is different from objective
Subjective is what you perceive, like objectively somebody weights 200 pounds where subjectively you say somebody is pretty. Or subjectively you say somebody is smart unless you give tghem an IQ test where you have quantified this logical construct of intelligence. And now it is no longer subjective, if you've tested somebody with an IQ test, and that's the basis for saying that they're intelligent then that's objective. Subjective means how you feel, happy, sad, scared, angry.
One of the things I found about women, is that they will never let you have sex with them until they are sure that you realize that it is their decision. That you are not making them. That they are choosing to. So until it is their choice, even if it is what they want to do, you are not getting it. They've got to play a little game and stop, because they want to be in control. So when it comes to having sex with a women when you first started to go out with them, they are all low on Agreeableness.
When you start to get hungry,
not only do you have to have a certain amount of sugar in your blood, but you have to have a certain fat density in your body. It is higher in women than in men, in men it is around 20% and in women it's around 30% (average body fat). As you get older the percentage of fat in your weight increases. As you get older, you are a little bit slower, so you need to carry a little more fat with you, cause it will be a little harder for you to catch up with your next meal. Different people have different genetic settings, in trying to be thin. It may a thing that may not be attainable.
So what is cognitive appraisal?
Involves cognitive (indentifying, recognize) appraisal (to evaluate, to determine). So this is saying that the first part of an emtional response involves identifying that it is one of those kind of stimuli for which there is an emotional reaction. Difference bedtween your reaction to one person and another person is what evokes an emotional response. Somebody who you are in love with, or Osama BinLadin walks through the door, most likely you will have a response to him that will be different than I walk through the door. And if Saddam Hussain walked through the door, you will have a really special response
there are things called defense mechanisms.
Freud's defense mechanisms are Repression, Reaction Formation, Sublimation, Displacement, Identification. (FIDS)
Something that activates a response,
emotion only occurs in response to certain specific and don't have a response to all stimuli, only certain stimuli. So we are describing generally, we not saying what everyone is, but there are specific class of things, just like in adaptive prepareness, there is certain stimuli for which we have a fear response. So there are certain stimuli, certain sound, certain images, certain smells that evoke an emotional response. So A reaction to an appropriately evocative stimulus that involves (which means that includes these things - to be considered as parts to the emotional response.)
There are some people who will argue that there is no such thing as personality.
They argue that the situation drives the behavior. And how somebody acts depends on where they are. Certainly that is a significant factor, and certainly does alter behavior. The way you act in class is certainly not how you act with your friends at a football game or in a club. And the way you act when you are having dinner with your family is probably not the way you act when you go to church. But within each of these contexts there is individual variability. So yes, there are changes in how you behavior in different situations. But nonetheless you behave fairly consistently in each different situation. Different situation call for different behaviors being more or less appropriate.
So if you have five things presented to you, the proactive interference makes what you learned first interfere with what you learned second.
And what you learned second is retroactive interference interferes with what you learn first.
Trait Theory of Personality
Gordon Alport
According to these guys, Costa & McFrae, and research seems to support their model,
everybody has these 5 traits. And in this trait theory we say that: Traits are the building blocks of personality. In other words, personality is the sum of the traits.
The Five Factor Model of Personality - Costa & McFrae
ive Factor Model of Personality (sometimes referred to as the BIG FIVE). And it can be remembered through an acronym OCEAN, these five letters stand for the 5 personality traits.
Ventral Medial Hypothalamus (VMH) =
Hunger off switch
What was the most bizzare part of Freud's psychosexual stages of development?
Oedipus, every little kid is in love with their opposite sex parent. A little boy wants to have sex with his mother, little girl wants to have sex with their father. That's wild.
Now, I'm probably not real high on openness, espedcially in resturants.
And I hate that I do this. If I go to a resturant for the first time and I tried something and I like it, everytime I go back to the resturant I'm going to have it. Its like when I think about that, it makes me think of going to the resturant. And then when I go to the resturant, its like I want to have that. So I end up having the same thing, everytime. So the resturants that I go to, most of the people already know when I come in, that I am going to get the same thing. My Ventral Medial Hypothalamus won't let me.
Definition of Emotion:
A reaction to an appropriately evocative stimulus that involves cognitive appraisal, autonomic arousal, subjective feelings and goal directed behavior short lasting.
Professor's friend who always saids "no". No matter what you suggested, he said "no".
He might suggest a little while later that you do it, but he would never do it when it is your idea. If it was his idea it's OK, but not when it is somebody else's idea.
It is not just the blood sugar levels that is monitored, but also the level of fat.
So where one person would pass it out with their urine or fecees, another may not. There are many body types. And that's why you can not be "twiggy" if your genetic makeup says you are suppose to have some fat around you. As you get older, your BMR slows down and the amount of fat your body stores increases and thus you are at greater risk to gain weight. But it is not all nature, and it is not just nurture. If you do not have the genetic make up and the nuture you may not gain or loose weight. If every body in your family is fat, it will not take a whole lot for you to have the risk for heart disease, etc. If you have the genetic makeup, it doesn't take much environment factors to put you at risk, but if you don't have the gene, it won't matter what you have around you, you probably won't be at risk.
Topographical model meaningn the components of personality.
Just like the previous model which says theres various traits, Freud's psychoanalytic theory says that personality consists of three structures, and those three structures are the ID, EGO and the SUPEREGO.
There will be a question on the test where the right answer will be consciousness and another where the right answer is conscientiousness. You will need to work to understand their meaning and spelling
What does "C" stand for in the acrnymn OCEAN? It must be conscientiousness.
This is a part of elaborating:
I imagine that you probably have friends that when you say "let's do something different." They always say "No". And you have friend that they are down with it "Yeah, that sounds cool." And you can think about yourself, generally speaking, when people get older, they become less open to new things. They get more stuck in their ways. They want to do what they are used to.
you'd really don't want to find out that the person you married is high on. Neuroticism is kind of like some one who is nervous about everythying. Every thing is a big deal, catastrophic. "Oh my god, Oh my god, Oh my god!", Drama queen, trailer park drama queen. And there are variability with this. There are people who kind of are able to accept difficulty and hardship. And there are people where everything puts them on tilt. Everything is a catastrohe. Pyschology, we use the term "catastrophizing: evrything is a catastrophe. Everything upsets them. Life is one disaster after another. They interprete everything as just overwhelming. They are sitting on the edge, just bearly able to function. Highly anxious, easily upset.
Someone who is high in agreeableness is somebody who will be willing to let other people suggest.
robably a good kind of person to have for a friend. Some body who is willing to do what you want and not always have to be in control. An easy person to be around. Somebody who is agreeable.
So when the EGO thinks that the ID is going to get you to do something or become something that you will want to do that you are not suppose to do it will get you in trouble,
the EGO engages in defense mechanisms. The Defense mechanisms are created by the EGO. The first and most basic defense mechanism is REPRESSION.
So in terms of motivation, that's what emotion is.
Emotion is aspect of your being that gives relative values to the various activities that you engage in. And that's why people like Watson and Skinner, there are Skinner box where a rat presses a bar. It has very little to do with human beings. Human beings don't just have choice to press a bar or not. There are hundreds to thousand different things from which you can do. Have you awareness of what the relative benefits and cost will be of them. Combined with what's going to affect your emotional life in doing so?
Emotion prioritizes your behavior.
You have a million behviors you could engage in, but you'll have to make a choice as to which one you'll do. Part of it is based on your logical mind, if I studied for this test, I'll get a better grade on it. And maybe I'll be able to get a degree and get a good job. Part of you said " If I go out and party with this chick tonight..." you'll have to come up with a compromise. Part of this is called conflict resolution, where you have Approach Approach and Approach Avoidance conflict and Avoidance, Avoidance.
Let's say you have a BMR of 2000 calories,
what that means is that if you take in 2000 caloroies every day, your weight will stay the same. Take in 1800 calories, and you will start loosing weight. If you take in more than 2000 calories, the body has this genius, instead of just bpassing the food out, it converts it into fat and stores in around your body so that in case sometime when you need food, it is available to us. Another misconception is that people have a gut and they want to exercise it off. Weight comes off you the same way it went on you. If the first place where weight went on was your face, that will be the last place where weight will come off. If the stomach was the last place you lost weight, then if you loose weight it will come off there. But if you put weight oin your bud, your thigh first, then your stomach; and you do a lot of sit ups, you will just have a hard fat stomach. When you go on these crash diets, your body slows down your metabolism to compensatet, then we go back to what you ate before, you will gain weight because your BMR may have been lowered to 1600. Now if you eat 2000 calories, you gain weight whereas before at 2000 calories, you maintained your weight. So that's what happens, its not really your stomach. That's why it is terrible to go on a crash diet. It is not the way to loose weight.
Retroactive interference
forgetting due to interference from newly learned information.
The ego,
r that part of the psyche that is your sense of self, has a very difficult job. It must satisfy both the id and superego. It must gratify the id's primitive, instinctual needs within the constraints of reality and within the moral standards of the superego.
An experiment was done a long time ago by some crazy scientist.
He put a balloon in his stomach; he blew up the balloon so his stomach was full. It's been known for a long time that the fullness of your stomach, the capacity, being full that's not what makes you no longer hungry.
Now, this is one of the ones that you should most readily recognize as something tghat happens all the time, DISPLACEMENT
is essentially redirecting your anger at an easier target. So those of you when you get your test back tonight and you get a crappy grade, and you're pissed off, and you go home and you kick your dog, or you slap your little sistetr that's Displacement. You're redirecting your anger at an easier target. The boss pisses you off at work, and you can't really take it out on him cause you'd loose your job, so you're in a ****** mood and you take it out on somebody else. You are on the LIE and you're beepingn your horn, you're really not pissed off, you're not happy about the person in front of you that's driving, but your anger is really at somebody else. You are Displacing your anger on to somebody else. And I think this is something that everybody does. Sometimes you recognize it, and you apologize for being in a crappy mood. Some people are less insightful, one of Gardner's eight intelligence is Intrapersonal meaning being able to understand yourself, some people aren't really very good and they think that when they are yelling at somebody, that's really justifiable. They don't realize that they were really pissed off and that what the person was doing wasn't really that bad, its just at the moment and even later, they won't think back and say that wasn't really appropriate.
Sublimation is
redirecting your sexual desires or sexual energy into socially acceptable behavior.
Reaction Formation is
engaging in a behavior that's oppposite to what you want to do. So if you Repress what it is that you'd want to do, and then you do the opposite, it will help you keep control over that unwanted behavior. Examples of this might be, if you are sensing that you might be gay, you're going to be homosexual, and that's not something you want to be. You might engage in Reaction Formation of gay bashing, going out and beating up fags, beating up people who are homosexuals. To prove to yourself and everybody else that you are not gay.
Every behavior that you engage in exists because there is a circuit in your brain that produced that behavior.
here are neurons that work together that cause you to have that behavior. Whether it is fear, whether it is an orgasm, everything you do is wired. Every program in your computer because there is a program that you have loaded that becomes available for the central processor to operate.
What are the four goals of psychology?
he four goals of psychology are: Describe, Explain, Predict and Modify behavior.
The Ego
reud posted that the ego is the second part of the psyche to develop. During toddler hood, particularly during toilet training, children come to realize that they are individuals. They recognize that they have their own desires, wants, and needs; the ego forms. The ego refers to your identity, or sense of self. It grows out of the id and can control the id, to an extent. The ego functions according to the reality principle because its job is to gratify the id in accord with reality. Because the ego is concerned both with reality and the id, it operates on all three levels of awareness (the conscious, preconscious, and unconscious levels of the psyche).
For example, imagine that it's breakfast time.
The id may prompt your for a chocolate doughnut. The superego may push you to eat something healthy like bran cereal or oatmeal. The ego attempts to gratify both desires: something healthy that tastes good. The outcome may be cereal with fruit, and some hot chocolate. As you can imagine, the ego has a difficult job.
It could be thought of maybe like a thermostat,
I don't know if you know what a thermostat is, but a thermostat is a mechanism that kind of works on the basis of negative feedback. You might have a thermostat for your heater, and the thermostat may be set say for 70 degrees. So as the heat reaches 70 degrees it is activated. This is similar to how the Thalamus works, it monitors levels and temperatures in different parts of the body and turns on and off mechanisms that will bring that particular system back to a level it alt to be, where it was programmed to be, the genetic setting is for.
We have taste for sugar, that's what our brain runs on. So now a days you can go to any fast food place and get enough fat to clog your arteries and kill yourself with a heart attack. But long ago, fat was a very special thing that when you can get your hands on it the Nucleus Accumbens (the pleasure center, the "do it again" center) will get active. Just like sex, it can also get active when you have certain foods like fat. So you have different people who will have different settings for storing different amounts of fat.
That's why fatty foods taste good to us, fat tastes sweet to us.
The Id
eud referred to the most primitive part of our psyche as the id. We are born with the id and it residues within the unconscious. The id is driven by primitive animal instincts including sexual and aggressive impulses. It functions according to the pleasure principle in that it seeks to maximize pleasure and minimize any discomfort. The id is illogical in that it seeks pleasure without thought to what is practical, safe, or moral. Freud argued that we are not aware of the id, but it influences our behavior.
Sublimation is the only defense mechanism that Freud considers to be healthy.
So engaging in Sublimation, it's not just sex, it could be like aggression. Like you want to beat people up, so you play football and you tackle people. Or you hit a ball, you smack a ball, baseball. So it is redirecting, you see Freud used the term sexual for more than just intercourse, he has a term "libito" and so it is redirecting libito energy. He believed that archetecture, music, art, literature, all of these things are there because somebody couldn't act as they wanted to, have sex, so they took that energy to have sex and redirected into a socially acceptable behavior.
o through factor analysis, it was possible for Costa & McFrae to reduce the five thousand words in a dictionary down to five basic traits. And these traits can be remembered through this acronymn OCEAN.
So now when they are doing these trait testing, and they are doing it for some company.
f the human resources or personnel department is administering the test for a perspective employee, this is one that they almost are always most interested in. And they want people that are high on this. That they're above averaged in responsibility. As opposed to its not that important that you are above average in flexibility, but responsibility.
If this is functioning normally, at a certain point your brain is going to signal that you've had enough
But there are different kinds of problems. When someone is depressed, they may not eat at all, or they may gorge themselves, it is some form of pleasure, something to do, a way of passing time. It is an activity, a social activity, so there are lots of different reasons why you can go beyond the normal functioning of the brain, than the brain is wired to.
If you just think about college classes, think about the other students,
here are students who ask lots of questions. There are students who will not open their mouth through the entire class. There are students who will argue with the professor, and say "no, no, that's not true." I miss Niki Chan. The one who had a friend for every topic. Her behavior was not like everybody else. So there are individual differences.
What Repression is,
is keeping the unwanted thoughts and desires out of consciousness, pushing them down, keeping them unconciousness. All of the other defense mechanisms (there are about a dozon of them, but you'll have to know these 5) involve Repression and another behavior to maintain control over the ID.
You think you digest food in your stomach;
you don't really digest food in your stomach. You digest food in the blood after it leaves the stomach, after it is out of the stomach and it is broken down into smaller pieces passes out of your stomach and passes out to the blood. Then enzymes delivered by your liver digest and breaks down the food into molecules that we could use, glycogen, glucose. We pretty much run on carbohydrates, protein and fat. The protein and fat can be converted into carbohydrate. So there are three basic food types: carbohydrates, proteins and fats.
f you look at this word, you can see that it's got in it kind of like conscience. Do you know what concience is? Do you know what your conscience is? Its that little thing in your brain that tells you what you're suppose to do. Freud calls it the SuperEgo, it's the internalized rules and regulations of your primary care giver. In cartoons, you have the little devil on one shoulder that says "Yeah, go do it" and a little white angel on the other with a halo saying "Oh no, don't do that, you shouldn't do that", that's your conscience. Your conscience is what tells you that you should be responsible. That you should, what it is that you should be doing. It keeps track of your responsibilities. So you could say responsibility.
Methods used:
(1) Psycho analysis sessions (2) Dream Interpretation
Students you meet on the first day of a new class, there'll be some students who will come in and they sit at their desk and kind of stay that way the whole semester.
hen there are people who when they come into a class they will greet others and be very social, high in Extraversion. So its out goingness, the opposite where someone who is low on Extraversion is an intravert.
The 5 Factor moidel, the Big Five model says these are the "5" traits.
Everytbody has them, they just have varying degrees of them. So and the term that they use is that somebody is "high" on this trait or "low" on this trait. Another words measuring how this trait is in this person relative to the average. The standard distribution. So if you had your standard distribution curve.
Freud believes that we must understand the unconscious in order to understand the behavior.
And to get to the unconscious, you must talk and talk and talk. In the 1800s Hypnosis was discovered, they found people with a disorder call Hysteria (they loose the ability to use an arm, or become blind with no physical reason). But through Hypnosis, they can regain the use of that function. But when they were out of Hypnosis they will revert back to the lost of function. So Freud decided to use the same approach but not have hypnosis. You are in a quiet room and someone with a low and moderate tone to get the patient to a state that would facilitate the hypnotic trance to access the unconscious.
I met her at work, she was amazing, sounds far out,
ut I worked in this place and it was a travel company and we were the wholesaler. And we had like 15 offices all around, and travel agents called into the wholesale office, like you could call the airline and book your hotel. Or you can call a tour operator, and they would haveg a package were it was all put together. So we had these packages, so anyway the travel agents would called into the office and I was in this headquarters. In this company, we had blocks of space, we had blocks of rooms at different hotels, and we had blocks of seats from the airline. And the travel agents would call in and say "I want to book a package." They would call me and I would block off and send down the names at the end of every week to the hotels. I have to smile, because the division I worked in was called "space control", because we controlled space. Space on the airlines and the hotels.
One time somebody called, they had the wrong number, but I answered the phone "space control"
nd I hear someone say "Wow, far out man. Where are you?"
Naturally, what happens is... just imagine like the thermostat when the temperature drops below a certain point,
when the blood sugar level drops below a certain point the Lateral Hypothalamus (LH) is activated and you interprete as "I'm hungry" and you may notice that your stomach feels empty. But it is not the emptiness in your stomach that is making you hungry, it's the signals coming from your Lateral Hypothalamus (LH) that is syaing "time to eat". So when the Lateral Hypothalamus (LH) is broken, and this does happen with some people, that they eat and they eat and they eat.
We have this thing called personality,
now, I talked a little bit about Freud and his ideas. And I'm going to talk a little bit more about them, about some of his concepts of personality. What I'm going to talk about today is a particular appraoch to personality, which is called the Trait Theory of Personality -- Gordon Alport.
Another example, a man who is a womanizer,
meaning a guy who goes out with lots and lots of women. This is been suggested as Reaction Formation. It is a way of proving that you are not gay. " Hey man I can't be gay, I had sex with a hundred chicks" So you go out to have sex with as many girls as you can to prove to yourself and others.
Basic drive from the perspective of the brain,
and basic drives like hunger stems from a structure in the brain called the Hypothalamus. It is amazing structure, a little thing that is no bigger than a peanut; it regulates almost all of the body functions. It regulates the Autonomic Nervous System. It regulates body temperature, it regulates in a woman the menstrual cycle. So there are many, many, many functions in the body that are regulated by this. It monitors hormones and other aspects of physiology and makes adjustments. It sends states of different parts of the brain.
So this is one type of motivation, hunger;
which is affected by one structure in the brain called the Hypothalamus. There are many different nuclei, two of which are devoted to making you feel like you need to eat. But we do have the ability to over ride these naturally running programs even though it is an innate part of our brain. That's why some body can become a vegetarian, that isn't what our system is designed for or evolved to do, but you can choose not to. The most recently evolve part of our brain, the part of our brain that makes us different from all other species. The part of our brain that is able to make you postpone gratification. The part of the brain that is first affected by alcohol which is why as you drink you end up getting loud, you end up in bed with somebody you wouldn't. That ability to inhibit behavior includes this. You can go on a hunger strike and not eat or you can keep shoving food down your throat long after it is enjoyable.
What are the four goals of Psychology?
The four goals of psychology are: Describe, Explain, Predict and Modify behavior.
Freud kind of tries to do all four,
e tries to explain like he has these psychosexual stages of development. And he predicts that if you have over gratification or under gratification, you will have a certain kind of personality type. And he uses psychoanalysis to modify behavior, so he attempts to describe, explain, predict and modify behavior.
Now there are psychological reasons. Eating is a pleasure,
but it is not as much of a pleasure when you are full. And if everything is working normally what happens is that at a certain point you just don't have your taste for food. It is just like someone could bring out a great desert and you arer stuff. You put a mouthful in and " yeah, it's really good, but man I can't."
Another example would be these evangelical preachers that stand up and preach against sin and they get caught in motel with prostitutes.
The reason they become evangelicals is they're trying to keep this behavior which they consider to be sinful out of their consciousness, and to prove to themselves and everybody else that they are not this bad person who is trying to sneak out. So that's a Reaction Formation.
What Alport saids is, that there are some basic personality traits that every body has,
nd everybody is just somewhere on that standard distribution. So if you if you are talking about shyness, there maybe an average amount of shyness, some people are more, some people are less. If you are talking about anger, some people haved more, some people have less. So anyway it is in this concept of personality traits that this particular model was developed by these two researchers: Costa & McFrae.
his aspect of the definition talks about how you feel and that is a part of what emotion is.
A feeling happy, sad, scared, anger, but you have these other things, most importantly it is what an emotion does. It is the reason from an evolutionary perspective the thing we call emotion. Emotion is really primative parts of your brain regulating behaviors that are essential for survival and reproduction.
This is a generality, there are exceptions. Men are taller than women, but every man is not taller than every woman.
So this is the way it works on average. And it may be that the Ventral Medial Hypothalamus (VMH) is not functioning. Or it may be that they are eating because they are lonely. There are a lot of psychological disorders that involve the symptom of over eating. And there's the opposite too of under eating, there's Anorexia and then the Bulimia, the bingeing and purging. It is a central part of our life, eating. It is also essential for survival. This is a brain based behavior.
So you sit in a class and you have almost three hours of being buried with one concept after another.
And each new concept interfers with the consolidation of the previous concept. And what your brain is trying to do with the previous concept interfers with this new concept that you are trying to learn. So the longer the class, the more material is covered, the more difficult it is to learn each of the things.
This model of personality, this trait theory of personality really came about indirectly through language.
What they did is, they looked in the dictionary, and they found all the words that describe people. Kind, shy, mean, gentle, etc. And then they used a statistical technique called factor analysis ( factor analysis is a statisticl technique of finding data that covaries, co-variance means that two things that change in the same direction, meaningn that they are really the same thing.). And through factor analysis they were able to identify whether certain words really mean the same thing. So if some body was very shy and was very soft spoken. And anytime some one was soft spoken they were always shy. And anytime they were shy they were soft spoken, they infer that these two different words were really describing the same trait or characteristic.
This is what emotion is.
is a response to an appropriately evokative stimulus that involves cognitive appraisal, autonomic arousal, subjective feelings and goal directed behavior And it is short lasting..
There's something call Retroactive interference and Proactive interference.
Proactive interference means that if you learned something, and then you learn something else. That second thing is going to interfere with remembering the first thing.
Freud's Topographical model of personality consists of:
ID, EGO and the SUPEREGO Make sure you know what these are and know the concept of the unconscious.
ut that change in the status of your autonoimic nervous system does among other things,
is to give you subjective feelings. You might haved a sinking in your stomach, like when you are scare, you might have that horrible feeling. That is really your perception of what has happened. Autonomic arousal it is something that stimulogic or it could be measured with an EEG or a few other ways. The subjective feeling is your perception, you know what subjective means?
Damage to this can cause reduced food intake
The Lateral hypothalamus or lateral hypothalamic area is a part of the hypothalamus.
Now I don't know if it is just a coincident, or whether there is something about that, that I found attractive in a women.
But that was a trait that both of my wives had. They are both what I would call work-aholic. They are just really responsible about their job. First wife, I remember back in the 70s, it was a big snow storm, and I lived by the LIRR, and she was working in Manhattan, and trains didn't run for 3 days. And by the second day, she was seriously talking about walking down the tracks to get into the city.
The basic conception of personality,
from this approach is that there are certain traits and everyone has them, what differs from one person to another is the extend to which that particular trait exists, its very powerful or not so powerful. So let's say we are talking about shyness, some people are very shy, some people are not too shy, but everybody has some degree of shyness. It's kind of like thinking about weight, everybody has weight, some people have more, some people have less, but nobody has no weight. It's one of the characteristics of being a human being, its not a personality characteristic. Same thing goes for height, everybody has height, some peole are very tall, some people are very short but there's no such thing as a person with no height. So if you remember, the standard distribution curve, and how you have a mean (an average) and everybody is either at the average or some distance from the average; standard deviations away. And you could go with height, you could go with weight, and you could say that everybody falls somewhere within the standard distribution.
Freud believed that anxiety was the result of the EGO sensing that it was going to be over powered by the ID.
The ID does not think rationally, ID works on something called the "pleasure principle", it wants immediate gratification. Some of the things the ID wants can get the person in trouble. So the EGO has to keep the ID from making the person do something that's going to get them in trouble. This is Freud's theory.
So anyway, Conscientiousness
his other wife that I had, the same thing. She was like, every job she had she was the best worker. I don't know, somewhere in my mind I find that sexy. I don't know. But Conscientiousness, I might suggest that people who are good students, probably on a trait exam would come out high on Conscientiousness. Because that ius a trait that is kind of necessary to study. If you're not high on Conscientiousness, when you get home, you will turn on the TV, talk to a friend, you'd even go out and party. If you are high in Conscientiousness when you get home, you know what you should be doing is studying and you are not comfortable.
Proactive interference
forgetting due to interference from previously learned information.
Do animals have emotion?
Emotion is a circuit in your brain that makes you do something which is necessary for survival and reproduction. So we have those, and we haved this other part of the brain, consciousness, reason and logic but at a more basic level you have these circuits that drive the organism to engage in behaviors that are necessary for survival and reproduction.
And as I said at the beginning of this course, Freud is important on one level because he was the first to really try to put together a model of personality.
And all of the theories of personalities after him are either an attempt to elaborate on and further support his ideas or to refute his ideas and contradict it. So he is important from a historical perspective. And I make fun of him, at the same time I believe that many of his descriptions of behavior are very insightful, and there are things you are going to see, that if you look in yourself and in others. Whether they are coming from where he says that they are coming from, I think is more open to question. But certainly these are descriptions.
Motivation is a word that describes that drive to do things.
And there are a number of explanations. If you look at it from the Operant Conditioning perspective, how do you think that the perspective of Operant Conditioning relates this? Based on rewards and punishment, that's an explanation for learning, for changing behavior. Both with Classical Conditioning and with Operant Condition, the concept that there is certain innate drives, like hunger and thirst and sex drive, there are other drives too, there's a drive to be loved, as well...
If we would build a robot, or find a robot.
And you would endow this robot with all of the abilities, the intellectual abilities and the movement abilities of a human and you turn this robot on, what would it do? It will do nothing. It may do something if you told it to do something, but on its own, it will do nothing. An essential part of your behavior, your motivations is for feelings, how many times a day do you say: "I don't feel like somethimg" or " I feel like doing th
Now, I've had a few jobs where I was a supervisor
nd one of the things I noticed about the people that I supervised was tghat you can broadly divide them into two groups. 30.23 There were the people who you gave a job to and you say this is what I want you to do. They sat down and they started working on it and they just work until they were finished. And if they were finished and there was time, they say "what else do you want me to do?" And there were other people who you would give a job to, and when you looked at them, they would work on them. As soon as you turn your back, they'd stop. And some of these people would actually work harder at finding a way to not do their job than the amount of effort it would be to do it. So tghat person would be really "low" on responsibility or on conscientiousness.
Unconscious Behavior is controlled by three (3) structures of personality:
• SUPER EGO - morality principle, Equivalent to your conscience - "rules from MOM", internalize voice from Mom.EGO - Develops in the first few years of life, moderates behavior to satisfy the ID but observes realty (reality principle), also moderates between Superego and ID.ID - Basic instinctual drive, most powerful - "I want it now!"(Operates on the "pleasure principle").
Personality -
the traits and characteristics of an individual that are fairly consistent over time and across situations.
The last part of the psyche to develop is the superego.
t five or six years of age, we begin to learn about the norms, rules, and values of society. Freud argued that children internalize these rules to form the superego, which functions as a very strict conscience. The superego operates according to the morality principle in that it seeks what is good and moral above all else. In that sense, Freud argued that it is just as illogical as the id. Like the ego, the superego functions on all levels of
Professor feels Freud's explanation is often very wrong.
But thinks that Freud's description of behavior is often very accurate. Whether or not these behaviors are because his explanations is the right explanation, the professor is skeptical about that, in fact he doesn't believe it really. But that doesn't take away the validity of his description. These are descriptions of how people behave. Whether it is because of what he says it is, its repressing and conflicts with the EGO and the ID, that's another question.
Freud conceived of the mind as having only a fixed amount of psychic energy, or libido.
Freud's theory it stood for all psychic energy. This energy fueled the thought processes, perception, imagination, memory, and sexual urges. In Freud's theory, the mind, like the universe, could neither create nor destroy energy, but merely transfer it from one form or function to another. Because scope of the mind's capabilities was thus limited by the amount of psychic energy freely available, any process or function of the mind which consumed excess energy debilitated the ability of the mind to function normally.
an inner state energizes towards the fulfillment of a goal.
Just as you know that you'll get ten dollars for doing this, five dollars for doing this and a dollar for doing that,
you'll probably do the ten dollar thing. Also have part of your brain, the Limbic system that tells you that when you do this there'll be a little risk, it's going to be a lot of fun, and you'll have to decide. And as I said you have Approach Approach and Approach Avoidance conflict and Avoidance, Avoidance. So if I go for the orgasm, and I don't do this other thing. I'll loose the money if I don't go to work, or who do I have the orgasm with. Or I hate my job and I hate going to class, which one am I going to do, which one do I dislike the least?
he held, demanded significant amounts of energy to maintain; even then, a repressed thought might come perilously close to becoming conscious, only to be redirected or defended against by a defense mechanism.

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