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Psychology 200: Cognitive Psychology


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the mechanism for continued cognitive processing
(assumes single psychological attention b/c one word)
QUESTION 1:Can attention be distributed to more than one task at a time?
discrete vs. continuous tasks
YES, we can do more than one task at the same time, but can't distinguish between parallel and switching
perform one task at a time
perform multiple tasks at a time
QUSTION 2: Does dividing attention change the way the task is performed?
It can: qualitative/quantitative
Amount of Attention: Does a task require a consistent amount of attention?
NO, selective interference
selective interference
explains why some taksks can take more attention depending on methods and how you ask
ex) say response- letter task easier
point response- sentence response easier
Limitation: What is the nature of the capacity limitation?
1) Resources
2) Structural
3) Filter
Multiple Resource Theories
different takss tap into different types of resources
Problem- don't know number of resources; can explain things, but can't PREDICT
Structural Theories
particular structures are needed for particular tasks
Problem: interference occurs when there is competition for a structure ex) chewing gum and whistling
Psychological Refractory Period (PRP)
all tasks have 3 stages:
1) Perception get info to do task
2) Response Solution- limitation of responses (one at a time)
3) Response Production- execution of response
Problem: can get interference when there is NO RESPONSE
lots of information, most is filtered out before you know it; store of conditional probabilities of past events (programs to alter filter for what is allowed to go through)
ex) Dichotic Listening
Dichotic Listening
differnt messages in both ears
told to listen to one ear
recall little from unattended channel
Late selection filter
can't explain initial results
moveable filter
explain everything, predict nothing!!
practicing an act, and that act taking less of our attention the more we practice
*takes few/if any attentional resources
*occurs w/o intention
*must run to completion
*not open to awareness
*requires many attentional resources
*occurs w/ intention
*need not run to completion
*may be open to awareness
Stroop Task
1)showed shapes of differnt colors and asked to name color
2) showed word of color in different color
*reading the word of the color is automatic unlike seeing which color the word is, so you can't stop yourself reading the word. With practice, the participants could do these tasks much faster
Schneider & Shiffrin
consists of varied mapping condition and consistent mapping condition
varied mapping conditon
targets could be distractors from frame to frame
*takes more attention
consistent mapping condition
95% correct at faster rate than varied
*CM not affected by memory set size
*CM not affected by frame set size
*Cannot easily unlearn
*starts controlled and turns into automatic
Logans Instance Theory
*accuracy of automaticity
*Statisticial Property
*the more times you do something, the more likely you are to used retrieved memory (auto)
*the more instances you have, the more likely you will have a correct answer
Horse Race
Horse Race
statistical property
*the more horses, the more likely there will be an extreme time
Visual Attention
object based vs. spatially based
*attention is not the same as fixation (just because you're looking at something doesn't mean you're paying ATTENTION to it)
focus of attention is like a spotlight (narrow=faster,more focused but less info, wide=slower, more info less focused)
Posner Spatial Cueing Task
benefit for valid cue, decreases RT
invalid cue increases RT substantially
Simple Feature Search
targets features don't overlap w/ distractors features
Conjunctive Search
target/distractor features overlap
*attention needed
*slow, # of distractors matters
RT greatly increases
Feature Integration Theory
*2 stages
*Pre-attentive processing
*conjunctive processing
Pre-attentive processing
*automatic, based on color,orientation, size
*# of background items doesn't change RT
Conjunctive Processing
*serial processing
*attention necessary, "glue" effect, takes resources
Memory Improvement
1) pay attention
2)avoid interference
3)use distributed rehearsal
4) identity cues
5)appropriate practice
Pay Attention
*encode information
*take a nap(absense of similar type of thoughts)
ex) names-reapeat, ask for spelling, use in sentence, associate w/ feature
Avoid Interference
retroactive interference
proactive interference
key word:bad
Retroactive Interference
information you are trying to learn can interfere w/ old information
ex) new telephone # interferes w/ old
Proactive Interference
information you alrady know can interfere with learning new info
ex) when you 1st get new phone #, old one interferes
Key Word: bad
works well once, but proactive interference when doing the same thing multiple times
Massed vs. Distributed Practice/Rehearsal
*Retain verbal tasks longer w/ distributed studying
*acquire nonverbal tasks faster w/ distributed studying
Retrieval Cue
*identify retrieval cue that will be available at test
Appropriate Practice and Processing
*develop automaticity
*intergrate w/ exhisting knowledge
*don't study w/ answers in front of you
*think what the test will ask (short answer or multiple choice)
Modal Model(picture)
*statistical term- mode
*Flow of Information- Sensory:STM:LTM
1. Sensory Memory
*holds unanalyzed/physical info
Short Term Memory
*holds acoustic-verbal-linguistic info
Long Term Memory
Episodic Memory
Semantic Memory
What was Sensory Memory replaced with?
*Stimulus Persistence: something like the stimulus that seems to persist after the stimulus disapprears
*Information Persistence: information can be extracted from the stimulus after it has disappeared memory. Information has been recoded.
Method of Savings
More you save, more you remember
Brown-Peterson Paradigm
1.recall consonant trigams (CLX)
2.Distractor task to prevent rehearsal
3.less than 10% after 18 sec.
*showed forgetting rate faster for STM
Different Causes of Forgetting
LTM: Interference
STM: Decay
Different Patterns of Errors
LTM: Semantic
STM: Acoustic (Acoustic Confusion Effect)
Acoustic Confusion Effect
much harder to learn things that sound similar, than non-similar
ex)TDVBPC harder than FLMQKX
Working Memory
has to do with memory span
Central Executive
Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad
Phonological Loop
Central Executive
decided how many attention resources outside gets
Phonological Loop
holds "speech" sounds
-accoustic confusion effect
decay is about 2 seconds
Articulatory Control Process
rehearses items in phonologic store to offset decay
Episodic Memory
memory from own personal episodes
*AWARE of the original learning context
Infantile amnesia
adults recall very few memories of events that occured before age 4/5
*b/c of brain not being fully developed
Reminiscnece bump
adults recall LOTS OF MEMORIES of events that occurred between ages 10-30
*b/c you're doing most things for the first time
Semantic Memory
generic memory
*UNAWARE of the original learning context
Procedural Memory
made up of declarative and procedural
knowing "that"
1. Primary
2. episodic
3. semantic
ex) knowing that you know info, but not knowing how
knowing "how"
riding a bicycle
classical conditioning
*can do it, but can't show someone
Perceptual Representation System (PRS)
Implicit Memory
Implicit Learning
Tower of Hanoi
Implicit Memory
need not be consciously aware of the relation between study and test phases
Implicit Learning
want to know if people acquire pattern, but now how
*subjects can show you pattern, but if you ask them how they acquired the pattern, they can't show you
Tower of Hanoi
amnesia subjects did just as good as Control subjects, showing declarative memory sytem is not important
Proceduralist Approach
mnemonic properties are determined by how you process it
Levels of Processing
(Basic Idea)
*memory is a byproduct of processing
*greater depth=better memory
*memory improvement due to DEPTH, not intention or rehearsal
*Processing more important than structures
Problems with Levels of Processing
Predicts deep is ALWAYS better than shallow
Morris et. al.
1. memory is best w/ deep processing
2. know if item is well-recalled if using deep processing
3. no independent measure of depth
4. don't know which is shallow/deep
Morris et. al.
different tasks and different types of processing
*deep processing better for recall/recognition
*deep not ALWAYS better
Transfer Appropriate Processing
memory better when processing at study is APPROPRIATE for processing required at test
Encoding Specificity
recollection of an event or a certain spect of it depends on the interaction between the properties of the encoded event and the properties of the retrieval information
environment dependent
state dependent
mood dependent
Nominal Stimulus
what the experimenter thinks
Functional Stimulus
what the person thinks

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