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Medical Terminology chapter 10 in book vocabulary

Terms

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cerebrovascular accident stroke
damage to the brain caused by cerebrovascular disease. ie occlusion of a blood vessel by embolus or thrombus or hemorrhage due to rupture of an aneurysm
attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
dysfunction characterized by consistent hyperactivity, distractibility, and lack of control over impulses, which interferes with the ability to function normally at school, home work..specific criteria must be met before a diagnosis is made
anorexia nervosa
severe disturbance in eating behavior caused by abnormal perceptions about one's body weight, evidenced by an overwhelming fear of becoming fat that results in a refusal to eat and body weight well below normal
ependymal cells
make cerebrospinal fluid that circulates around the brain and spinal coords
ganglion
collection of somas in the peripheral nervous system
microglia
cells that perform phagocytosis to engulf invading microorganisms and dead tissues
absence
seizure involving a brief loss of consciousness without motor involvement- previously termed petit mal( little bad) (
dysthymia
milder affective disorder characterized by a chronic depression persisting for at lease 2 years
Parethesia
abnormal sensation of numbness and tingling without objective cause
euphoria
exaggerated, unfounded feeling of well-being
cerebral cortex
outer layer of the cerebrum consisting of gray matter, responsible for the higher mental functions. cortex=bark
motor nerves
nerves that conduct motor impulses from the brain to muscles and glands; aka efferent nerves
soma
body of a neuron
Parkinson disease
condition of slowly progressive degeneration of an area of the brainstem resulting in a decrease of dopamine (chem. neurotransmitter necessary for proper movement) characterized by tremor, rigidity of muscles, and slow movements
meninges
three membreanes that cover the brian and spinal cord, consisting of the dura matter, pia matter, and arachnoid
sulci
furrows; ditch; shallow grooves that separate the gyri
lumbar puncture (LP)
introduction of a specialized needle into the spine in the lumbar region for diagnostic or therapeutic purpose, such as to obtain cerebrospinal fluid for testing; aka spinal tap
atopognosis
inability to locate a sensation properly, such as to locate a point touched on the body
occipital lobe
portion posterior to the parietal and temporal lobes, responsible for vision
carotid
stems from the greek word meaning to stupefy or throttle. described the arteries on the neck because ancients believed that when they were pressed hard they became sleepy
psychosis
mental condition characterized by distortion of reality. resulting in the inability to communicate or function within one's environment
cerebellum
located below occipital lobes of the cerebrum, responsible for control and coordination of skeletal muscles
synapses
small junction terminals between neurons
seizure
sudden, transient disturbances in brain function resulting from abnormal firing of nerve impulses
transient ischemic attack (TIA)
brief epidose of loss of blood flow to the brain usually caused by a partial occlusion that results in temporary neurological deficit... often precedes a CVA
neuron
basic cell structure of the nervous system
sympathetic nervous system
division of the ANS concerned primarily with preparing the body in stressful emergency situations
partial
seizure involving only limited areas of the brain with localized symptoms
astereognosis
inability to judge the form of an object by touch
neurosis
psychological condition in which anxiety is prominent
neuroglia
supporting neurological cells
hypothalamus
control center for the autonomic nervous system located below the thalamus
oligodendroglia
produce myelin
narcolepsy
sleep disorder characterized by a sudden, uncontrollable need to sleep, attacks of paralysis (cataplexy), and dreams intruding while awake (hypnagogic hallucinations)
syncope
fainting
autonomic nervous
nerves that carry involuntary impulses to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and various glands
hemiparesis
partial paralysis of the right or left half of the body
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
resulting from extremly traumatic experience, injury, illness....leaves persistent thoughts and memories of the ordeal.
hemiplegia
paralysis on one side of the body (saggital plane)
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
plasma-like clear fluid circulating in and around the brain and spinal cord
fissures
splitting crack; deep grooves in the brain
spondylosyndesis
spinal fusion
peripheral nervous system (PNS)
nerves that branch from the central nervous system, including nerves of the brain (cranial) and spinal cord (spinal nervers)
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
anxiety disorder featuring unwanted, senseless obsessions accompanied by repeated compulsions which can interfere with all aspects of a person's daily life.
gyri
ring or circle; convolutions (mounds) of the cerebral hemispheres
cerebrum
largest part of the brain; divided into right and left halves (cerebral hemispheres)...connected by corpus callosum
mania
state of abnormal elation and increased activity
quadraplegia
paralysis of all four limbs
sciatica
pain that follows the pathway of the sciatic nerve caused by compression or trauma of the nerve or its roots
axon
the efferent branch of the soma
sensory nerves
nerves that conduct impulses from body parts and carry sensory information to the brain---aka afferent nerves
dendrites
the afferent branches of the soma
dysphoria
restless, dissatisfied mood
bulima nervosa
eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by efforts to limit digestion through induced vomiting, use of laxatives, or excessive excercise
athetosis
unable to put down and consistent rolling motion of the hand
seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
affective disorder marked by episodes of depression that most often occur during the fall and winter and remit in the springr
temporal lobe
portion that lies below the frontal lobe responsible for hearing, taste, and smell
myelin
lipid that surrounds nerve fibers and helps conduct neuronal impulses
parasympathetic nervous system
division of the ANS that is most active in ordinary conditions; counter balances the effects of the sympathetic system by restoring the body to a restful state after a stressful experience
agnosia
any of the many types of loss of neurological function associated with interpretation of sensory information
parietal lobe
posterior to frontal lobe, responsible for sensations such as pain, temperature, and touch
brainstem
region of the brain that serves as a relay between cerebrum, cerebellum, and spinal cord, responsible for breathing, heart rate, and body temperature
dyslexia
developmental disability characterized by a difficulty understanding written or spoken words, sentences, or paragraphs, affecting reading, spelling, and self-expression
frontal lobe
anterior section of each hemisphere responsible for voluntary muscle movement and personality
generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
chronic, excessive, and uncontollable worry about everyday problems that affects the ability to relax or concentrate but does not usually interfere with social interactions or employment; physical sympt=musc. tension, trembling, twitching, fatigue, headaches, nausea, insomnia
thalamus (diencephalon)
two gray matter nuclei deep within the brain, responsible for relaying sensory information to the cortex
parapelegia
paralysis from the waist down
Central Nervous System (CNS)
brain and spinal cord
tonic-clonic
stiffening-jerking; a major motor seizure involving all muscle groups- previously termed grand mal (big bad) seizure

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