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Developmental Psychology 2


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Germinal Period
First 2 weeks of conception. Creation of zygote, cell division, attachment of zygote to uterine wall.
Inner layer of cells that develops during germinal period. These cells later develop into embryo.
Outer layer of cells, later provides nutrition and support for embryo.
Embryonic Period
2-8 weeks after conception. Intense cell division, support system for cells & organs appear. Zygote attaches to uterine wall, now is an embryo.
Inner layer of cells, becomes digestive and respiratory systems.
Middle later of cells, forms during embryonic period. Becomes circulatory system, bones, muscles, excretory system, and reproductive ststem.
Outer most layer of cells, created during embryonic period. Becomes the nervous system, sensory receptors (ears, nose, eyes) and skin parts (hair and nails).
One of the life support systems. Disk shaped group of tissues in which small blood vessels from mother and offspring intertwine.
Umbilical Cord
One of the life support systems. Contains 2 arteries and one vein that connects the baby to the placenta. Oxygen, water, salt, and food from mother's blood pass back and forth.
One of the life support systems. Bag that contains a clear fluid in which the developing embryo floats.
Organ formation that takes place during the first 2 months of prenatal development.
3 Stages of Prenatal Development
Germinal (0-2 weeks) Embryonic (2-8 weeks) Fetal (2-7 months)
Low-birthweight Infants
Weighs less than 5.5 lbs. at birth. 2 kinds: preterm infants & small for date infants.
Interrelated, coherent set of ideas that helps to explain and make predictions
Specific assumptions and predictions that can be tested to determine accuracy.
Steps to Scientific Method
1. Conceptualize a process/problem to be studied 2. Collect research info (data) 3. Analyze data 4. Draw conclusions
Ethological Theories
Behavior is strongly influences by biology, is tied to evolution, and characterized by critical/sensitive periods. Certain experiences influence individuals well beyond the time they occur.
Eclectic Theoretical Orientation
Orientation that does not follow any one theoretical approach, but rather selects from each theory whatever is considered the best in it.
Biological Processes
Changes in individuals physical nature: genes, height/weight gain
Cognitive Processes
Changes in individual's thought, intelligence, or language.
Socioemotional Processes
Changes in an individuals relationships with others, emotions, and personality
Infant Reflexes (4)
Sucking, Rooting-turn head to touch, Moro-startle response, grasping
Dynamic Systems Theory
Perspective on motor development in infancy that seeks to explain how motor behaviors are assembled for for percieving and acting. Esther Thelen-perception and action work together/mastery through adaptation.
Intermodal Perception
Ability to relate and integrate information about 2 or more sensory modalities (vision or hearing). Ex-infants pay more attention to picture in sync with sound than not.
Perceptual-motor Coupling
Esther Thelen- individuals perceive in order to move and move in order to perceive. Ex-attractive object, infants must perceive current state of body and learn how to use limbs to get object.
6 Substages of Sensorimotor Stage
1. Simple reflexes 2. First habits & primary circular reations 3. Secondary circular reactions 4. Coordination of secondary circular reactions 5. Tertiary circular reactions, novelty, and curiosity 6. Internalization of schemes
Primary Circular Reaction
Based on attempt to reproduce interesting/pleasurable event that initially occured by chance. Ex-accidentally sucking on fingers, later on it becomes intentional.
Object Permanence
Understanding that objects and events continue to exist even when they cannot directily be seen, heard, or touched.
Telegraphic Speech
Short, precise words to communicate, young children two and three word utterances characteristically are telegraphic.
Language Aquisition Device (LAD)
Infants are born with a biological endowment that enables the child to detect certain language categories: phonology, syntax, and semantics. Evidence: universal milestones.
Infant-Directed Speech
High pitch "baby talk. Designed to communicate with infants, and encourage their language development.

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