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nervous system - organization - anatomy


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the brain and spinal cord are components of the ___
most of the substance of the brain and spinal cord is composed of ___
the peripheral nervous system is composed primarily of the dendrites of sensory neurons and axons of ___
motor neurons
the axons and dendrites extend from the spinal cord to the muscles and glands and form ___
the spinal cord passes downward from the brain and extends through a bony tunnes found in ___
the spinal cord is continuous with the ___
brain (medula oblongata)
the inner material of the spinal cord is gray matter, while the outer portions is ___
white matter
the three membranes surrounding and protecting the spinal cord are called ___
the outermost membrane surrounding the spinal cord is the ___
dura mater
the inner membrane surrounding the spinal cord and having many blood vessels is the ___
pia mater
clear, watery fluid is found in the central canal of the spinal cord and is called ___
cerebrospinal fluid
the ventral roots of the spinal cord contain the axons of ___
motor neurons
injury to the ventral root of the spinal cord results in a condition called ___
the nerve tracts carrying information away from the brain through the spinal cord are knowns as ___
descending tracts
the spinal cord serves as a coordinating center for the ___
reflex arc
the brain receives impulses from the spinal cord as well as from 12 pairs of ___
cranial nerves
the brain is composed of two major ____
cerebrospinal fluid flows through the cavities of the brain as well as in the ___
subarachnoid space
the brain consumes about one quarter of the body's ___
the inner portion of the brain is mainly composed of white matter while the outer portion is composed of ___
gray matter
the numerous convolutions of the brain are called ___
the anterior portion of each hemisphere is occupied by a lobe called the ___
frontal lobe
at the posterior portion of the brain hemispheres is a lobe called the ___
occipital lobe
the region of the frontal lobe concerned with motor function for speech is ___
broca's area
the sense of smell is located deep within a portion of the brain known as the ___
the interpretation of visual patterns occurs in the lobe of the brain known as the ___
occipital lobe
the cavities of the brain are called the ___
the brain region lying adjacent to the medulla and serving as a coordinating center for motor activity is the ___
the cerebellum is composed of two lateral ___
because it is a reflex center for coordinating muscle activity, the cerebellum helps smooth gait and maintain ___
the diencephalon is organized into masses of gray matter called ___
the nucleus of the diencephalon that relays sensory impulses into the cerebral cortex is the ___
the nucleus of the diencephalon that produces hormones stored to be released by the pituitary gland is the ___
emotional experiences such as fear, anger, pleasure, and sorrow are regulated in a ring of tissue at the edge of the brain stem called the ___
limbic system
the rounded bulge in the brain stem separating the midbrain from the medulla is the ___
the swollen stem of the brain connecting the spinal cord to the remainder of the brain is the ___
medulla oblongata
in the cerebrum of the brain, impulses cross over to opposite sides of the brain at the ___
decussation of pyramids
a network of nerve fibers in the medulla that are responsible for activating the cerebral cortex is the ___
reticular formation
the sensory somatic system is composed of spinal nerves and ___
cranial nerves
the human body has spinal nerves that number __
31 pairs
the cranial nerve that is concerned with smell is the ___
the cranial nerve that regulates swallowing nerves and sensitivity of the face, teeth, and tongue is the ___
trigeminal nerve
the cranial nerve that has sensory and motor functions with respect to the heart, blood vessels, and organs of the viscera is the ___
the cell bodies of nerves lopcated outside the brain and spinal cord are in groups known as ___
the spinal nerves communicate impulses between various parts of the body and the ___
spinal cord
bodies where spinal nerves combine temporarily before passing to the destination points are known as ___
the autonomic nervous system operates on a basis that is ___
the nerve fiber of the autonomic system extending from the ganglion to the body organs is called the ___
postganglionic neuron
the nerves of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system duplicate the action of the hormone ___
once a crises has passed the body is returned to normal by impulses of the portion of the autonomic nervous system known as the ___
parasympathetic division
cell bodies and axons of interneurons make up most of the substance of the:
b)SNS (sensory)
d)ANS (autonomic)
the cell bodies of neurons of the PNS are located:
a) in the body organs
b) at the body surface
c)in the sacral vertebrae
d)within or near the CNS
most nerves contain:
a)only cell bodies
b) only dendrites
c)motor axons and sensory dendrites
d)association neurons only
all of the following are functions of the PNS except:
a)it interprets sensations & stimuli
b)it connects the body to the external environment
c)it carries response to the muscles and organs
d)it carries stimuli to the CNS
all the following apply to the spinal cord except:
a)it is continuous with the brain
b)it terminates near the intervertebral disk separating the 1st and 2nd lumbar vertebrae
c)the outisde portion is gray
d)it is surrounded by meninges
all the following are meninges except:
a)the pia mater
b)the corpus mater
c)the arachnoid mater
d)the dura mater
white matter of the nervous system is white because:
a)cytoplasm is white
b)dendrites are white
c)the pia mater contains white pigments
d)myelin in myelin sheaths is white
the cerebrospinal fluid may be found:
a)within the dura mater
b)only in the myelin sheath
c)in the central canal of the spinal cord
d)in the cytoplasm of cells of the brain
the dorsal nerve roots are the sites of:
a)gray matter of the brain
b)cell bodies and axons of sensory nerves
d)attachment for the meninges
destruction of the ventral nerve roots will result in:
a)the inability to move
b)the inability to form cerebrospinal fluid
c)the ability to speak louder than usual
d)the ability to conduct more nerve impulses more efficiently
the descending tracts in the spinal cord:
a)are composed solely of dendrites
b)have no cell bodies
c)carry impulses for transmission to muscles and glands
d)are extensions of the sensory organs at the body surface
all the following functions are associated with the hypothalamus except:
a)water balance
b)regulation of body temp.
c)math calculations
d)regulation of body weight
nerve cells located in the midbrain function as:
a)reflex centers
b)producers of hormones
c)hearing centers
d)sensor for pain and heat
the glossopharyngeal nerve has sensory & motor functions relating to the:
a)ears and eyes
b)taste buds and eyes
c)tongue and pharynx
d)heart and blood vessels
all the following are activities controlled by the vagus nerve except:
a)activation of the cerebral cortex
b)regulation of breathing activites
c)control of the rate of heartbeat
d)smooth muscle contraction in certain blood vessels
the 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves make up the:
a) CNS
b)spinal cord
c) SNS (somatic)
d) ANS (autonomic)
all the following apply to the autonomic nervous system except:
a)it operates on an involuntary basis
b) it consists of sympathetic & parasympathetic divisions
c)it does not include cranial nerves
d)it is composed of preganglioni
the peripheral nervous system is composed of the (axons) and dendrites of motor neurons and sensory neurons.
the the average adult, the spinal cord appears as a (mass) of tissue approximately 18 inches in length.
the spinal cord begins anatomically at the (obturator foramen) of the occipital bone.
foramen magnum
the spinal cord is surrounded & protected by three membranes known as (sarcolemmas)
the middle, thin, netlike covering of the spinal cord is the (dura mater)
the watery fluid found bathing the spinal cord and brain is known as (plasma)
cerebrospinal fluid
projections located aong each side of the spinal cord are referred to as (nerve roots)
injury to the (ventral root) of the spinal cord leads to a loss of sensation and a condition called anesthesia.
dorsal root
the ascending and descending tracts provide a ststem of communication between the muscle and glands and the (spinal cord)
the function of memory is associated most closely with the (spinal cord)
the three major portions of the brain are the brain stem, the cerebellum, and the (pons)
a shallow groove occurring within the brain tissue is correctly known as a (gyrus)
the parietal lobe is located posterior to the frontal lobe and is seperated from it by the (lateral sulcus)
central sulcus
a person's intelligence, personality and ability to initiate voluntary responses to stimuli are located in the brain portion called the (cerebrum)
centers for hearing are located in the cerebrum in the (occipital lobe)
temperal lobe
the fourth cranial nerve, known as the (abducens), is responsible for eye movement
the cavities within the brain carry cerebrospinal fluid and number (five)
the cerebellum communicates with other parts of the central nervous system by three pairs of nerve tracts called (cerebellar peduncles)
the thalamus and hypothalamus both are located within the (brain stem)
the sensations of huner, the regulation of body weight and temperature and the water balance of the body are all associated with the (hypothalamus)
nerve fibers from the medulla oblongata to the cerebrum pass through a rounded bulge know as the (corpus corpora)
the rate of heartbeat and the contraction of smooth muscle in blood vessels walls are both regulated by impulses from the (medulla oblongata)
sensory and motor neurons are the principal components of the PNS
the (cranial) nerves are grouped as cervical, thoraci, lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal nerves
the autonomic nervous system operates on a (voluntary) basis.

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