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Oral Facial- Anomalies and Periodontium


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Hutchinson's Incisors
notched incisors, called screwdriver shaped, result of prenatal syphilis
If primary teeth are congenitally missing, permanent teeth will be
Masticatory mucosa
dense mucosa, light pink, thick epithelial covering, keratinized cells, on hard palate and gingiva
cavity within alveolar process in which root is held-socket
Cellular Cementum
cememtoblasts embedded in cementum, at apical portion of root- may form over acellular cememtum
consists of tissues that support the teeth- divided into two parts 1. the attachment apparatus and 2. the gingival unit
occurs when two adjacent tooth germs unite, may be united along a part of or the entire length of the tooth; may be joined by their crowns or roots; fusion of the teeth must be made at the dentin
4th molar, distal to 3rd molars, 2nd most common supernumerary teeth
2nd most likely teeth to be missing
permanent maxillary lateral incisors
Enamel Hypocalcification
condition that inhibits the calcification of enamel
attached gingiva
from base of sulcus to mucogingival junction- stippled texture lika an orange
hard, bonelike, covers roots of teeth, attachment for PDL
Lining mucosa
makes up the alveolar mucosa, cheeks, vestibule,lips, tongue, soft palate floor of mouth, red, freely movable, thin, delicated, non-keratinized, easily injures
Anomalies of roots- mand canines and premolars
most likely to have accessory roots
Tetracycline staining
occurs when expectant mother or a young child with tooth crowns that are still developing take antibiotic- tooth of developing fetus of the young child discolor ranging from yellow to brown to grayish blue
free gingiva
gingival margin to base of gingival sulcus
type of fusion that occurs after the roots have formed; before or after eruption;fuse by a deposition of cementum
extra teeth, more common on maxillary (90%)
5 PDL fiber groups
Alveolar crest group, Horizontal group, Oblique group, Apical group, Interradicular group
Dental Anomaly, 3 causes
deviation from ordinary or normal, hereditary, congenital, familial tendency
Enamel Hypoplasia
caused by any condition that inhibits enamel formation, may cause small pits or grooves at different levels in crown
Gingival Unit
made up of free and attached gingiva, made up of two types of oral mucosa, masticatory and lining
Interradicular group
fibers between roots of multi-rooted teeth
Functions of attachment apparatus
supports teeth in the bone, prevents tooth movement, nutritive by blood vessels, sensory by nerves, formative-replace cementum, PDL, alveolar bone
deposition of excessive amounts of secondary cementum, usually occurs at the apex and often along the entire length of the root
Turner's tooth
hypocalcification of a single tooth- usually maxillary incisor, from local infection or trauma to the developing tooth
Dentinogenisis imperfecta
hereditary dentinal developmental abnormality, dentin is gray, brown or yellow but appears with a translucent hue- pulp tissue filled with dentin- treatment is full coverage crowns
Parts of gingival unit
free gingiva, attached gingiva, alveolar mucosa, gingival sulcus, free gingival margin, interdental papilla, free gingival groove
Bundle bone
extra thickness or numerous layers of bone added to socket wall
tumorous anomaly of calcified dental tissues (dentin, cementum, enamel)
Amelogenisis imperfecta
hereditary, developmental anomaly- enamel when present is very thin, stained and fractures easily
Active eruption
causes tooth to migrate occlusally until it occludes with an antagonist, compensates for occlusal abrasion
Familial Tendency
inconclusive evidence to label as heredity
Oblique group
fibers running obliquely from cementum to bone
Mulberry Molars
Characteristic of congenital syphilis; irregular shaped molars with porrly formed cusps
Gingival fibers
function to closely attach gingiva to tooth surface- resists recession
Anomalies of roots- Max. 1st premolars
have 2 roots (40% of cases they have one)
form of hypercementosis that is associated with localized destruction of the bone
Dwarfed roots
Anomalies of roots- root of the teeth are extremely short in comparison to the crown
tooth that has a very sharp bend or curve in the root or crown- most often seen in the mandibular 3rd molars
free gingival groove
shallow groove that runs parallel to the gingival margin; marks beginning of attached gingiva;corresponds to the base of the sulcus;groove not always present
Enamel pearls
small masses of excess enamel located apically to the CEJ- often where roots divide(bifurcation or trifurcation area)
Alveolar crest group
cervical area of tooth to alveolar crest
3rd most likely teeth to be missing
permanent mandibular 2nd premolar
occurs when a tooth attempts to divide itself of partially twin itself by splitting its tooth germ( usually, not always, have a single root and common pulp canal)
most common permanent teeth missing
3rd molars/wisdom teeth
Transseptal Fibers
support tooth in relation to adjacent teeth
gingival sulcus
space between the free gingiva and the tooth- 2.5mm healthy depth(1-3mm is healthy)
Oral mucosa
specialized epithelial tissue that lines the oral cavity
Cementum grows by
apposition-addition of new layer- very slow process
free gingival margin
edge of gingiva where gingiva meets tooth; forms a collar around tooth
Enamel Fluorosis
one of the most common forms of enamel hypocalcification, caused by excessive fluoride in the tooth structure
Apical group
fibers radiating apically from tooth to bone
Anomalies of crowns
3rd molar most variation in size, number and shape of cusps- Peg Laterals- Mandibular 2nd premolars vary in cusp form ( 2 or 3 cusps)
supernumerary at midline of maxillary, most common supernumerary tooth
Anomalies of roots- Max 2nd premolars
often bifurcated, although more often only one
fiber forming cells, principal cells of connective tissue
bone forming cells, lay down bone
Peg Laterals
most common anterior tooth anomaly- Maxillary lateral incisors small
alveolar mucosa
apical to mucogingival junction; mucous membrane of cheeks, lips, floor of mouth
extra tooth buccal or lingual to molar
Enamel Dysplasia
two types of abnormal enamel development- Enamel hypoplasia and Enamel hypocalcification
Dens in Dente
tooth within a tooth- developmental varitaion occuring when the outer surface of the tooth crown invaginates or turns itself inward before mineralization
teeth are too large
Periodontal ligament
tissue surrounding roots; connects roots to bone, sensory mechanism between roots and bone, cushioning-schock absorbtion/allows tooth some degree of movement within the alveolus
Sharpey's fibers
embedded ends of connective tissue fibers in the periodontal membrane- some in cementum- some in bone
Anomalies of roots- severe curve or twist in root only
condition occurs at or before birth, may be hereditary, may not be
Anomalies of roots- Mand 2nd premolars
can have bifurcated root
Mesial drift
allows tooth to move forward/mesial, closing spaces lost from interproximal wear
multiple/extra teeth, not uncommon
interdental papilla
extension of free gingiva that fills embrasure between 2 adjacent teeth; free gingiva located in triangular interdental spaces
Horizontal group
fibers running horizontally from tooth to alveolar bone
too few teeth
Main components of attachment apparatus
cementum, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone
teeth are too small
Alveolar bone
thin, compact, surrounds teeth- lines the socket/alveolus, continually changing
Attachment apparatus
how the tooth is anchored in socket/alveolus
interlacing meshwork that makes up cancellous/spongy bone framework
Mottled enamel
discolored areas, from ingesting too much fluoride during the years when teeth are forming
Cementum forming cells

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