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The most radical faction of the French Revolution.

Wanted a republic and were a part of the National Convention.
Sugar Act
Tax on sugar, molassas, coffee, textiles, and wine.
Small groups with shared beliefs.
No Taxation without Representation
Idea that the colonists/ones being taxed should have a say in the making of the taxes.
Brother of Louis XVI.

Took power after Napoleon went to Elba.
Napoleonic Code
Napoleon's Law Code which is still in effect today in Louisiana.
The prison fortress in the center of Paris.

Stormed on July 14, Bastille Day
Lord Dunmore
Went around telling slaves they would win their freedom if they fought for the British.
First Consul
Position in the Consulate taken by Napoleon.

He later declared himself Consul for life.
Common Sense
Pamphlet which stated that the colonists deserved freedom from england and should rebel without attemp to compromise.
Says America will become important if suceeds

Written by Thomas Paine
Stamp Act
Tax on all paper goods.(letters, newspapers)

There was a seal to show that the tax had been paid.

First internal tax
Not relating to religion
African Americans
Were slaves.

Most fought for the British during the revolutionary war.
Where Napoleon Bonaparte was first exiled to.

He then returned for Waterloo.
Why was George Washington chosen to be the leader of the Continental Army?
1: He was a good solider during the French and Indian War.

2: He was Virginian which would show that all the colonies were in favor of independence, not just Mass.
Symbol of the French Revolution.

White-France's Past
Blue-France's Future
Dr. Benjamin Rush
Leader in Philadelphia

Proposed idea (which was passed) that all the children of slaves should be freed; women at 21 and men at 28
Committees of Correspondence
Groups across colonies who wrote letters and other things against britain's actions
Paul Revere
Silversmith who warned the colonists of the soon to arrive British. (Battle of Lexington and Concord)
Wrote The Spirit of the Laws.

Studied many forms of government.

Liked the ideas of checks and balances and separation of powers.
Internal Taxes
Taxes on goods from within the colonies
When the Catholic Church, under Pope Paul III tried to rid the church of its corruption.
Battle of Lexington and Concord
British were coming to get artillery from Concord.
Small group of colonists protested on the Lexington Green(armed).
Someone fired and was the 1st Battle of the Revolution.
Colonists used guerilla-style tactics.
Wrote a ton.

Wrote against censorship, slavery, and was for freedom of speech.

"I may not agree with what you say, but i will defend to the death your right to say it"
Thomas Jefferson
Virginia Plantation Owner.

Was a member of the House of Burgess

Was a delegate at the 2nd Continental Congress

Wrote the Declaration. (With much help from John Locke)
John Calvin
Wrote Institutes of Christian Religion.He believed in predestination, God already decided where were are going.Geneva asked him to lead a theocracy, government run by church leaders.He got a following of Calvinist who followed his Calvinism when Geneva was a success.
Boston Massacre
One man was taunting a solider.
Several more joined in on the taunting and snowball and rock throwing.
A few soliders came to defend orginal solider.
Someone fired and 5 colonists were killed.
the idea of being a peseant forever forced to work on the lord's land.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
Attempt to writing a constitution.

Reminiscent of Locke and the Declaration of Independence.
Marbury v. Madison
Under Judiciary Act, Adams filed court appointments.Left for Jeff. to send.J/Mad didn't send Marbury's.Mar. mad. Go to Sup. Court against Mad.SCourt Chief Marshall say should have given appointment, but judiciary act was uncostitutional, giving judical more power.
Battle of Yorktown
Last battle of the Revolutionary War.

Large group of British were captured.
Proclamation of 1763
Colonists could not settle west of the Appalachian Mountains.
Duke of Wellington
Leader of the British forces at Waterloo.

Had the cunning to anticipate Napoleon's movements by studying earlier battles.
Bill of Rights
First 10 Amendments of the Constitution.
Included Freedom of Speech, Press, and Religion and the Right to peacebly assemble.(1st Amendment)
Right to Bear Arms. (2nd Amendment)
No Quartering of Troops. (3rd Amendment)
No Search and Seizure. (4th Amendment)
Powers not delegated to the Federal Government are reserved for the states or the people. (10th Amendment)
First Estate
The clergy.

Paid no taxes and most often lived lavishly.

Some participated in social work.
Isaac Newton
A English Scientist who formed the idea of gravity.
Those who supported the constitution.
Highest court is the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court has 9 justices whom the president appoints and the senate approves. They can decide on the unconstitutionality of laws.
Battle of Saratoga
Turning Point in the Revolutionary War:

British decided to change strategy of trying to separate New England from the other colonies

Convinced French to support the Colonists/Americans
July 14th
Bastille Day.

When the French citizens stormed the Bastille.
External Taxes
Taxes on goods coming into the colonies.
Most Colonists were against this mercantilist idea.
Checks and Balances
Montesquieu idea to have the three branches have checks on each other make sure no one branch got too much power.
Check: Exec. to Legis. Can veto a bill
Check: Exec. to Judi.Appoints Justices
Check: Legis. to Exec.Override veto by 2/3 maj.
Check: Legis to Judi.Senate approves Justices
Check: Judi. to Exec.Declare actions unconstit.
Check: Judi. to Legis.Interprets the laws.
A written document outlining a nation's government.
system of government in which there is a natural order of:

Why were the colonists so mad at being taxed?
Because they had never been taxed before.(During the English Civil War, little attention was paid to the colonists:BENIGN NEGLECT)
Shays Rebellion
Mass. Farmers were upset at court rulings and Daniel Shays got a group together and held the arsenal.
George Washington and troops from other states had to be called.
It was one of the prompts to amend or get rid of the articles of confederation.
A ballot.

Used by Napoleon to vote yes or no to becoming emperor; this way to display that his title of emperor was legitimate.
Those who did not support the constitution.

Many feared too strong a central government and wanted to add a bill of rights.
Separation of Powers
Idea (from Montesquieu) to break the government into separate branches. We have Executive, Legislative, Judicial.
Benjamin Franklin
Philadelphia printer and supporter of the Revolutionary War

Was sent to England with the olive branch petition
Rene Descartes
Followed the new scientific method.

Had ideas in math, science, and philosophy.

Philosophy-Believed nothing was true until proven, except the statement Cogito, Ergo Sum (I think therefore I am).
Sons of Liberty
Groups who protested British acts
Adam Smith
Rejected the ideas Mercantilism.
Wrote The Wealth of Nations.
Believed in Laissez Faire (hands off), the idea that there should be no government restrictions or tariffs on trade.
Believed nation's wealth was measured by how many goods and services it has.
Thomas Paine
London writer who moved to philadelphia when he was 37(bad life in England)

Came with a letter from Ben Franklin (For acknowledgement)

Wrote Common Sense
Napoleon's first wife
Small groups of nonprofessional soldiers.

Many of them fought during the American Revolution.
The congress two houses the House of Representatives and the Senate.100 delagates Senate, two per state.elected for 6 year terms.The House is based on population and currently has 435 delegates. They are elected for 2 years.
Francis Bacon
One of the innovators of the new Scientific Method.
Belief that a nation's wealth is measured by how much gold and silver they had.

Government trade restrictions and tariffs were good.
A shortening of the time a soul would spend in hell.

These were sold to commoners so that the church could raise money for their own lavish lifestyles.
Second Estate
The nobility.
Paid no taxes.
Got many benefits and were reserved the good jobs in the church, army, and government.
Noble Families got that way from something they had done for the king's family years and years ago.
When non-Catholics were forced to convert etc.

Pope Paul III strengthened this medival institution.
John Locke
Wrote Two Treasties of Government.

Said that all people were born with certain natural rights (life, liberty, etc) and that governments where in place to protect the people's natural rights. He said that if a government was not protecting the people's natural rights, the people had a right to overthrow the government.
Nicolaus Copernicus
Thought up the heliocentric theory. (Sun the universe center)

This idea was rejected.
Great Compromise
The small states wanted the legislation in Congress to be equal, but the larger states wanted it to be based on population.
The Compromise was to make the Congress bicameral, with a house based on population and a house that was equal.
Council of Trent
The met irregularly for 20 years and helped to bring back original Catholic ideas.

They also started to end corruption by placing harsh penalty for corruption and better teaching clergy.
July 4th
The ratification of the declaration of independence
Also believed in the heliocentric theory.

He also had many other ideas that conflicted with Aristotle and so was under fire from the Catholic Church.

He eventually publicly denounced his views, though he still believed in them.
Consists of the president.
Is elected to a 4 year term and may only serve 2 terms.
Acts as the commander in chief of the army, can veto bills.
From the French Revolution.

Moderate Republicans
Wrote The Social Contract.

Thought that people were born good but society turned them evil.
Daniel Shays
Leader of Shays Rebellion.
Said all people naturally greedy, selfish etc.
He said to rid themselves of the evils people were in social contract and got a organized society instead (Wrote in Leviathan).
He said only good government was monarchy.
He thought because grown up during the English Civil War.
National Assembly
Begun by the third estate after the voting frustration.

Invited delegates from other estates to join.

Took the Tennis Court Oath; vowed not to separate till a constitution was written.
Limited Monarchy
When the King does not have full power.
State Constitutions
During the Revolutionary War all the colonies developed state constitutions.
Virginia used their current set-up but added a bill of rights.
Was considered a conservative state constitution.
Pennsylvania was considered to have a liberal constitution. Only had one legislative house(unicameral) and no governor.
Massachusetts had a very liberal state constitution.
They had the constitution ratified by the people, not those who were going to be the legislative body.
John Adams
A Massachusetts lawyer who was very active during the Revolutionary War.

He was the second president and he passed the alien and sedition acts.
Wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Woman.

Said that while a woman's first duties are domestic, they should be allowed to think for themselves.
French Revolutionary who was affiliated with Danton.

He was a member of the Directory and the consul where he had little to do.
Articles of Confederation
The first attempt at United States Constition.
Gave very little power to the central government because they had little trust in it.
The confederation congress 1 house and 1 vote could not collect taxes or have an army.
It was called a league of friendship.
Peace of Augsburg
Said that the princes could decide whether they wanted to be Lutheran/Protestant or Catholic.

It ended up with a primarly Catholic south and a Protestant north.
Reign of Terror
The period of time during the French Revolution when many first and second estate were killed by the guilloitine
Elizabeth I
Got throne after half brother Edward and half sister Mary.

Had to calm religious turmoil after Edward put more Protestant doctrine in place and then Mary made the Church of England Catholic. Elizabeth I replaced the Church of England to its balanced Protestant and Catholic ways.
Martin Luther
Viewed the current church as corrupt.Wrote the 95 Theses, arguments against indulgences.He was asked to recant, rid himself of his views, but he refused.Eventually his beliefs became popular in Northern Germany and they had a new name Protestant, because of the protesting of the church.
Henry VIII
King of England.

Wanted an annulment from his wife Catherine, but the church would not give him one. He was mad so he got rid of the catholic church in his country and began the Church of England which was Anglican but kept many Catholic ways and rejected many Protestant ways.
Mary Louise
The second wife of Napoleon.

She was Austrian.

She got him entrance in a royal family
Johann Gutenberg
Invented the printing press, which sparked greater literacy and easier access to books.
Louis XIV
Lavish Spender who left France with a lot of debt.
Thomas More

Wrote Utopia, about an ideal society.

His daughter was very smart.
Denis Diderot
Wrote the Encyclopedia, which compiled many philosophes' work.
William Shakespeare
English Playwright who wrote 37 plays including histories, tradegies, and comedies.

Invented many new words.
One who supports the arts by giving money, making commisions, and housing artists.
Miguel de Cervantes
Wrote Don Quixote, a parody that mocks medival ideas such as chivalry.
Louis XVI
Called the Estates General
Baldassare Castiglione
Wrote The Book of the Courtier.

The book discussed manners and other things sutiable for a member of court.
National Convention
When the radicals got together and changed France to a republic with a new constitution.
The language of the common people.
Constitutional Convention
Met in Phili.

Original Plan was to amend the Articles, but they soon realized that they were too bad and wrote a new constitution.
Albrecht Durer
This Dutch man made engravings. (etching designs w/ acid on metal and then uses the metal plates to make prints)

He also wrote essays, and some of his engravings went with the essays.
A art technique involving making two dimensional pictures look three dimensional.

The Mona Lisa is know for its use of perspective.

The style was new during the Renaissance.
Niccolo Machiavelli
Wrote The Prince.

Gave advice on how to get and keep power.

He wrote "is much safer to be feared than loved".

Machiavellian is now an adjective to describe someone deceitful in the political realm.
Places where priests tried to convert non-christians/catholics.
Renaissance Man
One who knows about and is good at many things.
French Revolutionary who helped arrange the Reign of Terror.
Jan y Hubert van Eyck
Painted paintings of both the townsfolk and religious scenes, which was surprising as not many had not painted religious scenes back then.

They also developed oil paint.
Right to vote
A renaissance artist who is known primarly for his sculptures and for his painting on the Sistine Chapel.
Third Estate
Lowest and biggest estate.

The highest in the third estate were the Bourgousie, middle class.
Leonardo Da Vinci
A true renaissance man, he was an amazing painter who painted The Last Supper and Mona Lisa, but he also was an inventor, engineer, architect, and scientist who even dug up corpses to study the anatomy of the human body.
Marie Antoinette
Austrian Woman who was the wife of Louis XVI. They lived very lavishly.
Dutch Priest who wrote a translation of the bible in the vernacular.
French revolutionary who helped execute (no pun intended)the Reign of Terror.
Francois Rabelais
French writer who expressed his ideas under the guise of a novel, Gargantua and Pantagruel.
Who was the Medici Family?
A rich business family from Florence who became the uncrowned rulers of Florence.
Northwest Ordinance
The only good law passed under the Articles of Confederation.

Said that south of the Ohio River slavery was acceptable and north of it the importation of slaves was prohibited. It also said that until a population of 5000, territories west of the Appalachians could not apply for statehood.
Lorenzo de' Medici
Also known as "The Magnificent".

He was a good politician leader, and patron.
The idea of studying and learning about wordly/secular issues, as opposed to religious.

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