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COM 100-Ch. 12-Public Communication


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speech to entertain
speech in which the primary goal is to amuse, interest, and engage listeners
narrative speaking
rendering a story to share experiences, build community, pass on history, or teach a lesson
speech to inform
speech in which the primary goal is to increase listeners' understanding, awareness, or knowledge about some topic
speech to persuade
speech in which the primary goal is to change listener's attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors or to motivate listeners to action
willingness to believe in a person or to trust what a person says and does...exists in the minds of listeners, and they confer it, or refuse to confer it, on speakers
initial credibility
the expertise and trustworthiness listeners grant a speaker before a presentation based on titles, positions, experiences, or achievements known to listeners before they hear a speech
derived credibility
the expertise and trustworthiness that listeners recognize in a speaker as a result of how the speaker communicated during a presentation
terminal credibility
the cumulative expertise and trustworthiness listeners recognize in a speaker as a result of initial and derived may be greater or less than initial credibility determining on how well the speaker communicates
specific purpose
objective that a speaker aims to accomplish as a result of presenting a speech
thesis statement
the main idea of an entire should capture the key message in a concise sentence that listeners can remember easily
material used to interest, move, or persuade people...includes statistics, examples, comparisons, quotations, and visual aids
form of evidence that uses numbers to summarize a great many individual cases or that demonstrates relationships between phenomena
form of evidence that uses single instances to make a point, dramatize an idea, or personalize information...include: detailed, undetailed, hypothetical, and anecdotal or stories
comparisons (analogies)
form of evidence that uses associates between two things that are similar (or strikingly different) in some important way or ways
form of evidence that uses exact citations of statements made by others
visual aids
form of evidence that uses visual objects such as charts, graphs, photographs and physical objects to reinforce ideas preseented verbally or to provide information
halo effect
occurs when an expert in one area is assumed to also be an expert in other areas that may be unrelated to the person's expertise
words and sentences that connect ideas and main points in a speech so that listeners can follow a speaker
oral style
visual, vocal, and verbal aspects of the delivery of a public speech or other communication
impromptu delivery
involves little preparation...speakers think on their feet as they talk about ideas and positions with which they are familiar
extemporaneous delivery
presentational style that includes preparation and practice but not memorization of actual words and nonverbal behaviors
manuscript delivery
presentational style that involves speaking from a complete manuscript of a speech
memorized delivery
presentational style in which a speech is memorized word for word in advance
communication apprehension
anxiety associated with real or anticipated communication is common and can be constructive
systematic desensitization
method of reducing common communication apprehension that first teaches people how to relax physiologically and then helps them practice feeling relaxed as they imagine themselves in progressively more difficult communication situations
cognitive restructuring
a method of reducing communication apprehension that involves teaching people to revise how they think about speaking situations
positive visualization
a technique for reducing speaking anxiety in which people visualize themselves communicating effectively in progressively challenging speaking situations
skills training
a method of reducing communication apprehension that assumes that anxiety results from lack of speaking skills and thus can be reduced by learning skills

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