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undefined, object
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interpretation based on observations
grouping objects w/ similar observed properties
amount of matter in an object
amount of space an object takes up
percent deviation/percent error formula
percent deviation=
difference from accepted value
accept value

TIMES: 100
the concentration of matter in an object
float or sink: density is less than the density of a liquid
float or sink: density is more than the density of a liquid
the lower the density, the ___ it floats
if an object and a lidquid have exactly the same density..
the object can remain stationary anywhere in the liquid
what happens to the density of something whos temperature rises and whos pressure remains the same?
density decreases
explain this
molecules come closer together
what happens to the density if pressure increases?
the density increases
in what phase is the density of a substance the largest?
what is the exception?
water-hgihest density at liquid state
why does ice float on liquid wate?
bc water has its highest density at liquid
at what temp is water densest?
4 degrees celcius
rate of change formula
change in field value
change in time
examples of cyclic changes
movement of stars, moon, planets, sun
number of sunspots
seasonal events
water and rock cycles
the boundary between different regions with different properties
dynamic equilibrium
environmental equilibrium resulting from opposing forces or actions balancing out
name some natural pollutants
pollen in the air
volcanic dust and smoke
x-rays from radioactive decay
what are evidences of earths spherical shape?
1. photographs taken from space
2. the way ships appear to sink as they travel past the horizon
3. the similarity of strength of gravity at sea level all over earths surface
4. circular shadow of earth on earths moon during lunar eclipse
3 spheres of the earth
spheres in order from most dense to least dense
the layer of gases that surrounds Earth above the surface of liquid water and rocky material
zones of the atmpshere
troposphere, stratosphere, mesoshere, and thermosphere
the interfaces, or boundaries, of the layers of earths atmosphere
the layer of liquid water that lies between the atmosphere and much of the upper layer of earths interior. consists of oceans and other bodies of water
layer of rock that forms the solid outer shell at the top of earths interior
spheres of earth from thinnest to thickest
hydrosphere, lithosphere, atmopshere
what two elements make up most of earths hydrosphere
1. hydrogen (most)
2. oxygen
what does increasing latitude mean?
moving away from the equator or towards the geographic poles
what does decreasing latitude mean
moving towards the equator or away from the geographic poles
longitude lines
altitude of polaris equals
latitude in the northern hemisphere
local noon
when the sun reaches its highest altitude of the day in the sky
how fast does earth rotate
15 degrees per hour
in what direction does earth rotate
west to east
where is polaris located
over earths axis of rotation
any region of space or the environment that has some measurable value of a given quantity at every point
LINES used to connect points of equal field values
connect points of equal temperature
connect points of equal air pressure
contour lines
connect points of equal elevation
the rate of change from place to place within the field value
also called slope
gradient formula
change in field value
change in distance
topograhpic map[
contour map-model of the elevation field of the surface of earth
distance or height above sea level
ways to tell which way a stream is flowing
opposite the bends of the contour lines
flow to lower elevation
as depth within earths interior increases, the density, temp, and pressure
measurements taken with gravity meters would probably be most useful in providing information concerning earths
celestial object
any object outside or above earths atmosphere
anything that exists in any place
big bang theory
sttates that all matter and energy started out concentrated in a small area and, after a gigantic explosion, matter began to organize into aubatomic particles and atoms, and earth continues to expand
evidences of the big bang
1. long-wavelength background radiation coming from all directions in the universe
2. stars emit radiation-redshift-universe is expanding
doppler effect
shifting of wavelengths either to shorter (blue end) or longer (red end)
red shift
electromagnetic wavelengths spread out when earth and some other celestial object are moving apart
blue end
short wavelengths..moving closer
longer wavelengths..moving farther
lines in between red and blue
not moving toward or away from earth
how old is the universe
between 10 and 20 billion yrs old
collection of billions of stars
nuclear fusion
combining of the nuclei of smaller elements to form the nuclei of larger elements with some of the mass being converted into energy
as size and temp. of stars increase
luminosity increases
coolest stars of main sequence stars
red dwarf
giant stars
big and low tempetature
super giant
usually explode in a supernova
the super fiant stars that are the brightest and exhibit the highest temperature
blue super giants
what stars are bigger than the sun
super giants
white dwargs
low luminosity
black dwarfs
when white dwarf cools and no longer emits electromagnetic energy-"dead"
the evolutionary states of stars-after they spend most of their lives as main sequence star-depends upon...
their original mass
evolutionary stages of stars
1. Gas and dust clouds form stars
2. Main sequence
3. red giant or super giant
4. LOW MASS=white dwarf-->black dwarf
HIGH MASS=supernova
5. supernova-HIGH MASS=neutron star
LOW MASS=black hole
the sun's energy is most likely the result of the
fusion of hydrogen atoms
as star color changes from blue to red, the surface temp. of the star..
star of high temp and low luminosity
white dwarf
a solid rocky and/or metallic body that independently orbits the sun
has no atmosphere
composed of solids that asily change to gas when heated
when they get near the sun, their ices turn to gas
sometimes the solids released and the tails are visible from earths sky
small solid fragment that orbit the sun
when meteroids burn up or vaporize, they leabe a brief visual streak as they pass through earths atmosphere and are called meteors
impact crater
depression in earths crust from meteorites that have sufficent mass to create it
when did our solar system start
about 5 billion yrs ago
how did our solar system form?
gas cloud
gravitation perhaps aided by shock wave from exploding star, caused the cloud to condense into one or more mass concentrations.
impact event
the gravitational forces of earth and other planets pulled on the smaller clumps of matter to cause comets, asteroids, and meteroids to collide with the planets in what is called an impact event
what star is not included in our solar system?
what objects are condiered part of our solar system?
objects that revolve around the sun
compare the diameters of the planets
mercury venus earth mars
small-->bigger-->about same-->smaller
jupiter saturn uranus neptune pluto
bigger-->smaller-->smaller-->about the same-->very small
terrestrial planets
close to the sun and mostly solid
small diameters and high densities
impact craters
few or no moons and no rings
what are the terrestrial planets?
earth, mercury, venus, earth, and mars
jovian planets
far from the sun
large diameters and low densities
no solid serfaces and no craters
have many moons and have rings
what are the jovian planets?
jupiter, saturn, uranus, and neptune
oval shape that the planets' orbits are in
eccentricity formula
distance between foci
length of the major axis
two fixed points on the ellipse
the ovalness of an ellipse
what would the orbits of the planets look like to the human eye?
a circle
an object at rest will tend to remain at rest, and an object in motion will maintain the direction and speed of that motion unless an opposing force affects it
the attractive force that exists between any two objects in teh universe
the greater the mass..(gravity)
the more gravitational attraction there is between objects
the greater the distance...(gravity)
the less gravitiational attraction
what is an example of dynamic equilibriumbetween inertia and gravitation?
orbit of a planet around the sun
when does a planets orbital velocity increase?
when it gets closer to the sun
the closer a planet is to the sun...
the shorter its period of revolution and the faster its speed of revolution
where are the most circular planets?
closer to the sun
which two planets orbits would not look like a circle to the human eye
mercury and pluto
geocentric model
earth centered model
helliocentric model
earth and planets rotates around sun
how is earths axis tilited
what are evidences of earths roation?
1. foucault pendulum-when it is allowed to swing freely, its pth will appear to change in a predictable way
2. coriolis effect-tendency of all particles of matter moving at earths surface to be deflected, or curved away from a straight-line path, to the right in the northern hemisphere nd to the left in the southern hemisphere
evidence of earths revolution
1. if the earth did not revolve, the same part of earth would tilt toward the sun at all times and the seasons would always stay the same
2. there are different constellations in different seasons
3. slight changes in doppler effect of stars-movement to and away from stars cause slight blue and red shifting
local time
time based on rotation
on which side of the international dateline is it a day later?
solar time
based on the actual motions of the sun in the sky
mean solar time
time on the watch at noon
what is the period of the moons orbit?
27 1/3 days
warmer fluid=
lower density
all energy of an object or system not related to the individual motions of atoms and molecules
mechanical energy
specific heat
the quantity of heat needed to raise the temp. of one gram of any substance one degree celcius
the measure of the average kinttic energy of the particles of a body of matter
angle of suns rays at noon one dec. 21
angle of suns rays at noon on march 21 and sept. 23
48 degrees
el nino
warming of cold waters in the eastern pacific ocean off western south america
a darker region of the sun's visible surface

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