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wastes and remains of dead organisms
vestigial structures
remnant of a structure that may have had an important function in a species ancestors'
dose of a disabled or destroyed pathogen used to stimulate a long term immune defense against the pathogen
importance of each group of microbes
used for medicine, as well as in the creation of some foods such as yogurt
plant lacing lignin hardened vascular tissue
ecological succession
series of changes in the species in a community
organism that obtains food by eating producers or other consumers
beneficial uses of prokaryotes
used in medicine and development of foods
process by which plants use the suns energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars
convergent evolution
process in which unrelated species from similar enviroment have adaptations that seem very similiar
punctuated equilibrium
evolutionary model suggesting species often diverge in spurts of relatively rapid change
main energy source that cells use for most of their work
development of embryo
animals went thru embryotic stage where they had a pouch on the side of there throat
pteridophytes with large leaves called fronds
preserved remains or marking left by an organism that lived in the past
tissue that doesnt have phloem and xylem
population density
number of individuals of a particular species per unit area or volume
organic material manufactured by producers
gram stain
process by which gram positive or gram negative is studied
organism that makes its own food and produces organic molecules
plant that bears seeds that are not enclosed in an ovary
generation-to-generation change in the proportion of different inherited genes in a population
consumer that eats only producers
classification of bacteria by shape
3 shapes- spherical, rod, spiral
homologous structures
similar structure found in more than one species that share a common ancestor
bryophytes that have a mat that actually consists of many gametophyte plants
chemical that ATP synthase converts to ATP
trophic level
feeding level in an ecosystem
function of leaf parts
dermal tissue protects, vascular moves water and nutrients, ground functions in photosynthesis
gene flow
exchange of genes between populations
primary succession
process by which a community begins in virtually lifeless area with no soil
inherited characteristic that improves an organism's ability to survive and reproduce
prey adaptation
retreat, or camouflage
exponential growth
growth of a population that multiplies by a constant factor at constant time interval
lytic cycle
a viral reproductive cycle in which copies of a virus are made within a host cell
viral diseases
influenze, chicken pox, rocky mountain spotted fever
lysogenic cycle
a viral reproductive cycle in which the viral DNA is added to the host cell's DNA and is copied
charles darwin
scientist who developed the theory of evolution and wrote origin of species
organism that obtains food by eating other organisms
organism that breaks down wastes and dead organisms
food web
pattern of feeding in an ecosystem consisting of unified and branching food chains
reproductive structure of fungus
zygosporangia, sac or ascus, and fruiting bodies
molecular evidence
includes the common genetic code shared by all species
natural selection
process by which individuals with inherited characteristics well-suited to the enviroment
survival of the fittest
used to describe natural selection, in which animals that are best fit to the enviroment survive and pass traits on
package of nucleic acid wrapped in a protein coat that must use a host cell's machinery to reproduce itself
distinct form of life
medicine that kills or slows the growth of bacteria
reproductive isolation
condition in which a reproductive barrier keeps two species from interbreeding
consumer that eats only other consumers
adaptive radiation
evolution from a common ancestor of many species adapted to diverse enviroments
tissue that consists of phloem and xylem
artificial selection
selective breeding of domesticated plants and animals to produce offspring with desired genetic traits
pesticide resistance in insects
became resistant to a certain pesticide which used to kill them
group of individuals of the same species living in a particular area
flowering plant
S curve
after carrying capacity has been reached
introduced species
species moved by humans to new geographic areas
pyramid of numbers
representation of the number of individual organisms in each trophic level of an ecosystem
food chain
pathway of food transfer from one trophic level to another
energy pyramid
diagram representing energy loss from one trophic level to the next
gene frequency
how often certain alleles occur in the gene pool
J curve
curve of exponential growth
without oxygen
food pyramid
diagram representing food loss from one trophic level to the next
organism that makes its own food
secondary succession
change following a disturbance that damages an existing community
symbiotic relationships between fungal hyphae and plant roots
haploid single cell with a thick wall that functions in the dispersal stage in fungal reproduction
behavorial isolation
condition when behavior and mating behaviors keeps two species from interbreeding
virus parts
nucleic acid, protein coat
anaerobic fermentation
fermentation that doesn't use oxygen
cellular respiration
chemical process that uses oxygen to convert chemical energy stored in organic molecules
galapagos islands
group of islands in the pacific ocean off the coast of south america. made many of his discoveries here (darwin)
mutualistic pairing of a fungus and an alga
requiring oxygen
reproductive structures on a plasmodial slime mold
gene pool
all of the alleles in all the individuals that make up a population

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