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POLS110 Test 2


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Miranda rule
Requires those under arrest to be informed of their legal rights prior to police interrogation.
Barron v. Baltimore
Fought to get Bill of Rights applied to the states. Dealt with 5th Ammendment
Grizwald v. Conn.
State loses. They have no right to be involved in sexual decisions (Planned parenthood)
Establishment Clause
Wall of separation. (eg. Church/State)
exclusionary rule
The ability of the court to exclude evidence obtained in violation of the 14th Amendment
New York Times v. U.S
Published vietnam documents. Freedom of press is upheld. Cannot put prior restraint on the press.
Plessy v. Ferguson
Separate but equal is ruled ok.
Texas v. Johnson
Flag burning. Court says its legal. Sides with Johnson, freedom of speech.
de facto
Discrimination based on practices of society.
Scheneck v U.S
Clear and Present danger clause. Limits free speech if what you say or do creates a clear and present danger.
14th Amendment
1st step in nationalizing the Bill of Rights.
diffeent rights between state and federal governments, bill of rights would not apply to the states.
Brown v. Topeka Board of Education
Schools integrated in 9-0 court decision.
affirmative action
A policy or program designed to redress historic injustices against specified groups be actively promoting equal access to educational and employment opportunities.
procedural liberties
Restraints on how the government is supposed to act.
Substantive Liberties
Restraints on what the government shall and shall not have the power to do.
Bill of Rights
The first 10 amendments to the U.S. constitution.
equal protection clause
A clause in the 14th ammendment that requires that states provide citizens "equal protection of the laws"
Miranda v. Arizona
Created the Miranda rights. Forces police to inform a person of there rights before interrogation
civil liberties
Areas of personal freedom with which governments are constrained from interfering.
Gideon v. Wainright
Must give all persons to be tried the right to court appointed counsel.
de jure
Discrimination based on law o official policy.
civil rights
Legal or moral claims that citizens are entitled to make upon the government to protect them from illegal actions of other citizens and government agencies.
Selective Incorporation
Nationalizing select amendments
Strict scrutiny
Higher standard of judicial protection for speech cases and other civil liberties and civil rights cases, in which the burden of proof shifts from the complaint to the government.
Separate but Equal rule.
Doictrine that public accommodations could be segregated by race but still had to be equal.
Mapp v. Ohio
Cannot use illegal gained evidence in court to prove somebody guilty.
Roe v. Wade
Created lots of privacy rights, which over time have faded.
Universalization of Rights
The recognition that any group whether defined by sex, religion, race, ethnicity or gender has the right not to be discriminated against.

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