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Latinos/Latinas Final


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Symbolic racism
Symbolic racism: feeling by whites that blacks are making illegitimate demands for change
Hegemony: ideas of one group dominate or exert a predominant influence on the major cultural and social institutions, these ideas explain social reality
“the ideas of the ruling class are the ruling ideas” Marx
Sexism: individual’s prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behavior toward a people of a given gender or institutional practices that subordinate people of a given gender
Gender Roles
Family context
Value of men & women
Gender Roles
Family context
Value of men & women
Role of woman – mother, cook, cleaner
Role of man- provider ($$), disciplinarian
Historical Family Context
Historical Family Context
Idealized Indigenous Gendered Family Roles
Influence of European/Spanish culture on gender & family
Chicana Movement
What is the definition of family?
What is the role of women within the family?
What rights do women have over their bodies?
Sexuality & Gender Roles
Sexuality & Gender Roles
Women – high importance of virginity
Men – need for conquests
Homosexuality – not living up to expectations (procreate, going against type for femininity or masculinity, replicating stereotyped gendered expectations)
Goal of Course
Goal of Course
Develop critical thinking and writing skills through examining contemporary social issues focusing on Latinos/as
Focus on issues of immigration, social class, ethnic identity, language
Diversity within ethnic groups
Recent Census
Recent Census
12.5 % U.S. Population were Latino (35.3 million)
58.5% Mexican
9.6% Puerto Rican
4.8% Central American
3.8% South American
3.5% Cuban
Different populations in different regions of the country
Ethnic Gloss
ethnic labels that gloss over the richness and cultural variation within ethnic groups, glosses over unique lifeways and thoughtways of ethnic groups,
--Leads to low scientific rigor taht may lead to misrepresentations
general information on each generation
1800s, early 1900s, late 1900s
Major policies regarding immigration & incorporation of Latin American territories
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Treaty of Paris, Jones Act, Industrial Incentives, Bracero Program,
Push - Pull Factors
Economic & Family influences to immigrate
Business of undocumented immigration
Increased enforcement of border in 80’s & 90’s - War on Drugs
35% of Mexican Americans are immigrants
Gender & Latinos
Gender & Latinos
Machismo & Marianismo
Fluid & dynamic & socially constructed
influenced by social norms
Working class context for women
Kernels of Truth & Stereotypes
Kernels of Truth & Stereotypes
generalizations about a person or group of people where the same characteristics are assigned to all members
usually based on limited information
reinforced by repitition (ex: media)
influence social expectations
Need to know
Ethnic Label
Need to know
Pan-ethnic label definition
First use of Latino in 2000 Census
1970 first time use of Hispanic
Percentage of Population
12.5% of U.S. population
Mexican 58% of Latinos, Puerto Rican 10% of Latinos, Central American 5% of Latinos
Need to Know
Where do Latinos live?
Need to know
Where do Latinos live?
California, Texas, New York, Florida, Illinois, Arizona & New Jersey
More Mexican descent in West, more Puerto Ricans in Northeast, more Cubans in South (Florida)
Ethnic Labels
Mestizo = mixture of indigenous & European descent
Latinos have multiple racial influences
Ethnic labels have multiple uses
identity, political, national, nativity, etc
Difference between race & ethnicity
Definitions of Machismo & Marianismo as complex (both positive and negative)
Top 5 jobs of Latinas
1996 50% working Latinas
Where do gender roles come from?
Socialized from early childhood, social expectations
Social Location in the U.S.
Social Location in the U.S.
Race - Phenotype
Ethnicity -cultural differences
Class - income level/status of occupation / education
Invisible Voices
Gender Roles in Latino Context
Gender Roles in Latino Context
mother as center of family, caring for others, nurturing
martyr, self-sacrificing, virginal
brave, courageous,protector, provider
womanizer, domineering, patriarchal
Research & Gender Roles
1949 study in Mexico
Research & Gender Roles
1949 study in Mexico
91% of men & 90% of women agreed a woman’s place is in the home
1982 study in Puerto Rico
family decision making was joint or up to the mother
1983 study in New Mexico
allegiance to traditional roles, but no strict division of labor
Latinas & Working
1996 in the U.S.
Latinas & Working
1996 in the U.S.
53% Mexican American Women Work
53% Cuban American Women Work
47% Puerto Rican Women Work
46% have less than college degree
9% college grads
1 in four Latino households are female-headed households
Latinas and Working
Latinas & Working
Garment Workers
Florida 95% workers were women of color
California: majority Mexican female, 2/3 born in U.S., 9/10 unmarried
What are top 5 jobs held by Latinas
What are top 5 jobs held by Latinas
Sales worker, retail
Nursing Aides
Latino Generations
(1800s) Creation Generation
(1900s) Migrant Generation
(WWII-Vietnam) Mexican American Generation
(late 1960s) Chicano/a Generation
1800s Creation Generation
Incorporation of Northern Mexico into the U.S.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Prejudice from the Mexican American war
Racial inferiority was common in the south
Land taken
(1900s) Generation immigration History
1898: Spanish American War
Treaty of Paris:
Cuba & Puerto Rico
1917 Jones Act
Puerto Rico incorporated
Cuba becomes a republic
Political upheavals in Mexico- Mexican Revolution
Largest waves of European immigrants
22 million
1900s Migrant Generation
1900s Migrant Generation
1947 Industrial Incentives Act
tax breaks for U.S. companies in Puerto Rico
export approx. 1 million Puerto Ricans comes to U.S.
1943 Bracero Program
4.8 million workers from Mexico
Operation Wetback
WWII-Vietnam War Mexican American Generation
WWII-Vietnam War Mexican American Generation
Many fought in WWII
Over half a million Mexican Americans were recruited
Change from agricultural labor to unskilled urban workers
Puerto Rican’s fight for independence from U.S.
Blair House - 1950
1954 attempt on Truman
Mexican Americans also fighting for rights
Sleepy Lagoon Riots
Zoot Suit Riots
60’s Chicano Generation
60’s Chicano Generation
Cuban Revolution
Castro overthrows capitalist regime & tries to erase catholicism
Bay of Pigs - 1961 / Economic Embargo 1962
1 million Cubans leave
Bilingual Education established in Florida 1960
Civil Rights Revolution.
El Movimiento - Aztlan (Mecha)
Reies Lopez Tijerina - “Tierra o Muerte”1967
Cesar Chavez - farmworkers
17 million Americans boycott grapes - 1970
La Raza Unida Party
70’s & 80’s
70’s & 80’s
1980 Marielitos
120,000 refugees
Civil Unrest in Central America
approx. 2.5 million from El Salvador
Dominican Republic
Trujillo assassinated & economy suffered
1961 many immigrated to U.S.
Recent Immigration Policy
1986 Immigration Reform & Control Act
1996 Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigration Responsibility Act
Recent Immigration Policy
1986 Immigration Reform & Control Act
penalize employers of undocuments
demonstrate citizenship upon start of new job
permanent resident status living in U.S. 5 years or more
1996 Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigration Responsibility Act
enhanced border enforcement
Immigration & Border
Immigration & Border
Mid-late 1990s
INS budget increased by 68%
Border guards increased by 85%
Congress limits immigrant’s access to welfare
California Proposition 187 to limit undocument access to health care and public schools
4 Legal Ways to Enter U.S.
4 Legal Ways to Enter U.S.
Family Sponsored
Employment Based
Diversity Immigrants
55,000 visas from remote countries
based on persecution of a particular social group
Myth #1: U.S. Overrun by Immigrants
% foreign born
Myth #1: U.S. Overrun by Immigrants
Total number of immigrants has increased but total % is lower than ever
10% of U.S. population is foreign-born
Annually less than 1% increase
Primarily in six states
California, New York, Texas, Florida, New Jersey, Illinois
Myth #2 “Cost” of Immigrants
Myth #2 “Cost” of Immigrants
$240 billion in income
$90 billion in taxes
$5 billion in welfare
majority of immigrants on welfare are refugees
less than 1.5% of refugees come to U.S.
many refugees suffer from PTSD or clinical depression
Do NOT take jobs away
Myth #3: Immigrants don’t want to be part of U.S. society
Myth #3: Immigrants don’t want to be part of U.S. society
1 out of 3 become naturalized citizens
demand for ESL classes outweighs supply
75% speak English after at least 15 years.
Immigrants & refugees intermarry, rate of 1 to 3.
Critical Questions to Ask
Critical Questions to Ask
Sending Society - Push factors
under what conditions did they leave?
Receiving Society - Pull factors
what is the context that the U.S. is receiving immigrants? -militarization of the border
Economic Situation
changing economic status can be stressful
Family Situation
most cannot immigrate with families intact
Coyote revenue
guide($), driver($$), arranger($$$$)
each step has high danger potential
Cheap Labor
low pay
no rights (no unions)
health issues (fields & factories)
poor living conditions
Immigration Review
$25-30 billion more paid in taxes than used in services for education & public assistance
85% of immigrants come to U.S. legally
less than 2% receive welfare compared to 3.7% of U.S. population
Percent and Education
Percent & Education
Mexican Americans
1960 15% were Mexican immigrants
1999 35% were Mexican immigrants
High School Graduation or higher
Native 84%
Foreign Born 65%
Latin American born 47%
Mexico born 31%
South Americans 78%
Up to 2.5 million hired nationwide
Employed 25 weeks a year (a little over 8 months a year)
$6,000 a year in wages
receive few benefits because employers do not report Social Security
children as young as 10 are often hired
4 of 5 do not have health insurance
1/3 of child workers are injured while working
300,000 acute illnesses and injuries from pesticides per year
Pesticide Use in top 5 CA crops
Pesticide Use
Top 5 crops using most pesticide in CA
grapes (table,raisin), grapes (wine), cotton, tomatoes, almonds
Effects on health
carcinogens- cause cancer
reproductive hazards
nerve toxins
neurological damage & tissue/organ damage
Dolores Huerta
Dolores Huerta
Born New Mexico
1960 Agricultural Workers Assoc.
first UFWOC contract with Schenley Wine
1966, the United Farm Workers Organizing Committee (UFWOC), later to be renamed the United Farm Workers of America (UFW)
Cesar Chavez
Cesar Chavez
Born in Yuma, AZ
worked as migrant farmworker
1962 founded National Farmworkers Assoc.
1968 (25 days), 1972 (24 days), 1988 (36 days)
1970 grape growers accepted union contracts
What does language mean for Latinos?
Meaning of Spanish for Latinos
What does language mean for Latinos?
Meaning of Spanish for Latinos
cultural - biculural - identity
pronounciation of names
bilingual vs. monolingual
reaffirmative adaptation
Americanization vs. Multiculturalism
Bilingual vs. Monolingual
better mental health
better relations with family members
hybrid form of Spanish & English mixed
new view of Latino identity as fusion of cultures
since 1965-1970s
dual impact on English & Spanish
Bilingual Notes
18% in U.S. speak a language other than English
28% speak Spanish (over half of this group also report speaking English very well)
History of Bilingual Education
English as a Second Language /
History of Bilingual Education
English as a Second Language / Immersion
5% enrolled in 1969
Bilingual Ed start in Dade County Florida for Cuban Refugee children
Children performed as well or better than monolingual classes
History of Bilingual Ed
History of Bilingual Ed
1967 Texas senator allot federal funds
remedy for poor educational outcomes of Latinos
1968 Bilingual Education Act
Recognize needs of LEP students, prohibit segregation, support cultural heritage
1974 Lau vs. Nichols Supreme Court decision
1998 California first state to ban bilingual education
English Only Campaigns
English Only Campaigns
Result of rapid immigration patterns
Miami 1960-1980
Currently in Mid-West, ex: Iowa
rise in other language with recent immigrants
symbolic racism
viewed as threat
resentment of accommodation
Educational Attainment
Among Hispanics, Mexicans 25 years and older had the lowest proportion of people with a high school diploma or more.

Mexicans 25 years and older also had the lowest proportion of Hispanics with a bachelor’s degree or more.
Economic Characteristics
Economic Characteristics
Among employed Hispanics in March 2002, the most common occupations were:
service workers
precision production, craft, repair

Over one quarter of Hispanic children under age 18 live in poverty.

Hispanic families are more likely to be living in poverty than Non-Hispanic White families.
Poverty/ Children
Poverty/Latino Children
Almost double the amount of Latino households with children live in poverty compared to White non-Hispanic
Differences by Latino ethnic group
Puerto Rican highest, Mexican American mid, Cuban lowest
Poverty percentages with families
Poverty/Latino Children
25% of Latino households with children live in poverty
10.8% of White families with children

Puerto Rican (48%), Mexican American (37%), Cuban lowest (24%)
1/2 of Latino families in poverty are female headed households
Poverty Thresholds
Poverty Thresholds
Two people (no children) $11,53
four people (two children) $17,463
six people (four children) $23,009
largest total number White and in families
South largest region
inner cities largest numbers
rural areas more likely
more in poverty female headed households
2000 Median Income
2000 Median Income
White $31,213
Black $21,662
Hispanic $19,833

Increasingly unequal in 1981 slowed since 1993
Poverty & Latinos
Poverty & Latinos
Poverty decreased from 1999-2000
7.2 million
22.8% to 21.2%
difference compared to White 13.7% points higher
Foreign born in general
15.7% poverty
Latino Drop Out
H.S. Completion Dropout Rate
7.1% Latinos (almost double national average 4.7%)
9.0% for family income below $20,000
Overall increase in education levels over time
9% Latino enrolled in college
most likely enrolled part time college
17.5% full time employed, 31% part time
Early Education
Early Education
Schools multicultural
increase from 6% to 15% Latinos
Latinos less likely to be enrolled in nursery school.
Latinos more likely to be in public schools.
Neighborhood Hazards
Neighborhood Hazards
Only 35% of Latino kids report physical activity
21% of females and 50% of males exercise regularly
Obesity rates 30-40%
East San Jose 4th graders report in 1998
more hazards in lower income areas
more hazards associated with more physical activity
more hazards associated with less overweight
How would you explain this phenomenon?
Empowering Neighborhoods
Beyond stereotypes
Empowering Neighborhoods
Beyond stereotypes
“Community Space” (Chapt 17)
struggles over gates, laundry rooms,
“Barrio Space” in Tucson
Struggle for parks (Joaquin Murrieta & El Rio Center)
Current Latino Stats
Current Latino Statistics
Latino Ethnic Subgroups
58% Mexican descent (live in West)
10% Puerto Rican (live in Northeast)
5% Central American
4% Cuban (live in South)
4% South American
Ethnic labels can be used as a form of identity
Many labels exist for each group
political or national significance
nativity significance
Spanish language significance
Census Labels
Hispanic = Latino
Latino Commonalities
Latino Commonalities
history of foreign conquest/colonialism
Spanish language-bilingualism
minority status in the U.S.
economic condition in the U.S.
Mestizo heritage
involuntary immigrants
Ethnic Identity
Ethnic identity
Self-concept derived from membership in one’s ethnic group and the emotional value of belonging to this group
Social Identity Theory
Social Identity Theory
Need to study human interactions & conflict
Social Identity
Social comparison
Can create positive self-esteem through favorable comparisons
In-group favoritism
Ultimate Attribution Error
Eye of the Storm
What do we do when social group is viewed negatively?
What do we do when social group is viewed negatively?
Intensified when resources are unevenly distributed
Leave the group
Work to make group appear more positive
Compare to other groups that are worse
Turn negatives into positives
che guevara sign in e. la
we are not a minority
Ethnic Identity Development

Ethnic Identity Development
Acculturation: process of cultural change when ethnic groups come into continuous first hand contact

Enculturation: socialization process by which individuals learn about the culture of their ethnic group.
Social Ecology
mainstream society (TV, media, etc.)
Family & familiar others
Child’s self-concept
Immediate context
who and where
Cognitive Development
Ethnic affirmation
Positive attitudes to one’s group
Ethnic exploration
Active investigation into one’s ethnic group
Ethnic negativity
Negative feelings or shame towards one’s ethnic group
Ethnic resolution
Positive and resolved feelings
Latinos and Race
Latinos & Race
Mestizo= mixture of Spanish & indigeneous groups
Asian (many different areas)
Indigeneous (many different groups)
Race and Ethnicity
Race & Ethnicity in Social Science
Race= biologically based, common phenotype, common genetic compostions
Ethnicity=common cultural (values, beliefs, language) heritage
Socio-race=social construction of race (social class, discrimination by phenotype)
2000 us census
2000 U.S. Census
97.6% One Race
2.4% Two or more races (6.8 million)
40% live in the West
more likely to be under 18 years
6.3% of Latino origin reported 2 or more races
Mixed Race Heritage
Mixed Race Heritage
Mestizo: mixture of European and Indigeneous
Mulatto: mixture of European and African descent
Annual average growth rate - 3%
even during baby boom U.S. growth rate was only 2%
increased by 53%
tend to marry younger and have more children
Latinos have 5 years less of schooling than African Americans or White
Two groups with lowest levels of schooling:
foreign born Mexican (11 years)
Puerto Ricans (8 years)
Cubans are similar to Whites in U.S.
Undocumented Migration
Undocumented Migration
When a person fails to enter at official US port of entry and without proper permission from immigration officials
Leading cause of death for migrants
The leading cause of death for migrants is dehydration and hypothermia
Known Migrant deaths in 2004
233 known migrant deaths in 2004 along Arizona’s southern border
sign in front of El Centro Comunitario de Atención al Migrante y Necesitado
Altar, Sonora, México
Si no pensamos differente... todo sera igual
Plaza in Altar, Sonora, Mexico
Migrant Center
Grupo Beta
Mexicano Migration Stories
Altar Plaza Vendors
Migrants at the Laderilla /Brickyard
Plaza in Altar, Sonora, Mexico
Migrant Center
Grupo Beta
Mexicano Migration Stories
Altar Plaza Vendors
Migrants at the Laderilla /Brickyard
Culture is dynamic, always changing, powerful, complex
-shared set of learned beliefs, values, languages, norms, and shared beliefs
political: from indiginous word Mexica Meshi-ca
indiginous based from island
Puerto Rican
Location of birth: Nuyorican
--relation to homeland/ indiginous: Boriqueno
Culture is like water;
a fish swims in it, not recognizes that it is there, all around us
group defined by shared cultural practices, values and beliefs
grouping based on shared genetic heritage and or physical characteristics
Pan-Ethnic Label
pan-ethnic: asian/hispanic

---hispanic, latino, spanish-american, spanish origin, spanish surnamed, spanish speaking
National origin label
mexican american, or cuban, or puerto rican
people of mexican, puerto rican, cuban, central/south american descent or other spanish culture of origin regardless of race
Lainto used
2000 US census
Hispanic used
1970, 1st time inclusion of hispanic origin
Us ranking w/ latinos
us ranks 6th with most latinos
35.3 million out of 281.4 million
median age is 25.9 years
mexican is youngest= 24.2
cuban oldest= 40.3
---median age for us is 35.3
Geographic distribution
76.3 latinos live in W. or S.
1/2 of Latinos live in CA or Tx
--CA, TX, NJ, NY, AZ, FL, IL
Largest Latino sub groups
Mexican and Puerto Rican
Latino common characteristic
Language, US minority, european conquered
social construction of race, socail class, discrimination by phenotype
4 Main races
European, indigenous, asian, african american
1917 Jones Act
Puerto Rico incorporated
cuba becomes a republic, caused largest wave of european immigrants; 22 million
1943 Bracero Program
-Working arms and arms
grape boycott 1970
17 million americans boycotted grapes 1970
La Raza Unida Party

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