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Social Change Movements


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Ibn Khaldun: him & his theory
Khaldun was an Arabic scholar in NW Africa in the 13-1400's. He had a macro-level Theory of Change that says cyclic patterns are conflict-based. His examples are the nomadic Bedouins who covet Sedentary development, conquor them and degenerate to become them.
Arnold Toynbee: him & his theory
Toynbee is a historian with a macro theory that civilizations RISE out of response to challenges based on four factors (elites, masses, severity of challenge, and saviors) and FALL due to conflict.
Who are the "saviors" Toynbee described?
1. Savior with the sword: the state. 2. Savior with a time machine: "let's go to the past/future!". 3. Philosopher King. 4. God incarnate (religious. Christ is the overall best Savior.)
Pitirim A. Sorokin: him & his theory
Sorokin was a Russian functionalist sociologist in the 20th century. His theory views hisotry as oscillating cyclically between 3 supersystems. Change is caused by some external factors but mostly immanence: it's in the nature of the system to change.
What are the three supersystems Sorokin describes?
Ideational: spiritual; God as true reality and value. Sensate: material; sensory world as true reality & value. Idealistic: both; slightly more suprasensory.
What is Sorokin's "logico-meaningful" method?
The "meaning of ideas". Every system is organized around a discovery of something. This gives humans some role.
What do Sorokin & Marx have in common?
Immanence! It's in the nature of a system to change, and as Marx believed capitalism will eventually naturally collapse, Sorokin's societys will do the same.
How are cyclic and linear views of progress different?
Linear models focus on our concept of time and assume newer will be better. Cyclical models mirror nature's patterns and have been dominant most of history.
Define "social structure".
A stable, persistent, often-hidden pattern of interaction
Who are some linear theorists?
Darwin, Hegel, Comte (evolution from theological to metaphysical to scientific with scientists as new priests), Durkheim (evolution from mechanical conformity to survive to organic solidarity based on difference), Marx (dialectical conflict results in change from feudalism to capitalism to communism/socialism).
What is Wachtel's "culture of quantity"?
Money becomes the root of ALL. Work and its fruits get their value for their exchange (money-bringing) value, nothing else. Everything is quantified. It begs the question, "how much are we willing to pay?"
Paul Wachtel
Psychologist author of "The Cultural Context of the Growth Ideology". Ideas include culture of quantity, Faustian harmony v. growth, outgrowth, identity, and enoughness/stagnation.
According to Wachtel, what do we have to do related to identity?
Because we've outgrown our inherited identities, we must make one. It is an individualistic modern idea, a part of our growth ideology.
What does Wachtel say about stagnation?
In the body, unchecked growth is cancer! "The point is not to put a lid on progress but simply to avoid making a fetish of it; to learn to be more content with what we have while still imagining what might be".
What is a GNP alternative? Why use them?
GPI, general progress indicator. GNP increases with disease-it's not a good indicator of anything more than exhange quantity.
Murray Melbin
Melbin wrote Night as Fronteir exploring social life at night in parallel to social life as a land fronteir. It draws together space and time.
What does Melbin find in common between land and time frontiers?
1. 3 stages, wanderers-production-consumption. 2. Sparse but homogenous population. 3. Less persecution. 4. Isolation. 5. Decentralization (of gov/supervisors). 6. Deviance. 7. Lawlessness & violence concentrated to certain places & times. 8. Supportive community. 9. Exploitation becomes national policy.
What is implosion?
Ritzer's idea that formerly seperate spheres of time and space disintegrate while collapsing in on each other. Space: shop from home. Time: download at midnight by credit card.
What did Bowdrillard say that speaks to Ritzer's "Reenchantment" article?
Simularca is the rise of fake versions of things.
What ideas did Ritzer have in his article "Reenchantment"?
impolosion, differentiation, dedifferentiation, time as spectacle, extraordinary spaces.
What is a grassroots movement?
A bottom-up, not nationally-organized, pragmatic movement.
What was the National Grange?
Social Movement Organization. Methods: Farm cooperatives to pool money and resources while cutting out the middle man. Social & education network. Failed: Didn't have the money, were boycotted.
What was the Farmer's Alliance?
1877 self-help SMO. Method: Cooperative stores with interracial sub-alliances. Cleburne Demands. State Cooperative Exchange. People's Party. Failed: Attempts to bankrupt & sabotage them. Commercial resistance.
What were the Cleburne Demands?
The Farmer's Alliance demands for regulations
What was Shays's Rebellion?
Who: Daniel Shays, Revolutionary War veteran, poor farm hand, gathers 1000 outcasts like himself. What: Rebellion against merchant & landed classes. Result: Lost rebellion & Shays died in poverty. BUT awakened people to hypocrisy of the democracy and eventually led to more rights & extension of voting rights to those without land.
Who said, "I hold it that a little rebellion now and then is a good thing....God forbit that we should ever be twenty years without such a rebellion."
When did persons such as Susan B. Anthony and Sojourner Truth organize, and what for?
In the 1840s, for voting rights for women.
When did women gain voting rights?
With the Nineteenth Amendment in 1920.
Define the collective behavior tradition.
CB see people as acting together in noticible ways in society.
What is LeBon's contagion theory?
People in groups contagiously act animalistically and irrationally.
What theories are under the collective behavior tradition?
LeBon's Contagion theory, Turner & Killian's emergent norms theory, Smelser's value-added model of the social strain theory.
What is Turner & Killian's emergent norms theory?
There is rational thinking in group situations; very quickly norms and rules develop (in riots, &c.)
Name a social strain theory.
Smelser's value added model.
Who is Smelser?
Smelser is a functionalist theorist who gives us the value added model of the CB social strain theories.
What is Smelser's Value Added Model?
Society, as an organism, builds step upon step: 1) structural conduciveness (conditions/rules allowing public behavior), 2) structural strain, 3) rise of a generalized belief (that something can be done about the problem), 4) precipitating factor (gets attention), 5) mobilization (people organize & turn out), 6) failure of social controls by authorities (not squelched). If get this far, collective behavior may occur.
What is functionalist sociology?
Society is an organism.
How is a social movement different than collective behavior?
Social movements are organized.
What is the social psychological explanation for social movements?
Irrational protestors are motivated by relative deprivation and are alienated from mainstream culture.
Define "relative deprivation" in context of Social Movements.
Movements occur when you FEEL like you are lacking something.
List the social movement theories.
Social psychological, grievance/social strain, resource mobilization, political process, framing, New Social Movements, cultural.
What is the functionalist explanation for social movements?
There is social strain, so protestors respond to their grievances.
What does the Resource Mobilization Theory say?
Social movement actors are rational. Resources, not grievances, are important in the success.
What resources does the RMT consider?
Skills for organizing, professionalism, and SMOs (among others).
What does the Political Process Theory say?
Social Movements occur when there are political opportunity structures in place.
What is the Framing Theory?
The success of a Social Movement depends on effective framing of the issue to the public so others will join and be able to personally connect.
What does the New Social Movements Theory say?
Material goods are no longer fought for in affluent society, so the movements are now for collective identity. They operate through submerged networks and cut across traditional class lines.
Define "radical dignity".
We gain something from standing up for our beliefs, and lose something when we do nothing about something that is wrong (Loeb).
What does "This Mighty Dream" say is the primary agent of social change in American society?
Mass-based movements and the conflict they generate (12).
What was the State Cooperative Exchange?
Coop founded by Farmers Alliance. Encouraged farmers to work with political action to oppose monopoly power.
What was the People's Party?
Also called the "Populists". Methods: Omaha Platform. Failed: Tied down with "silver crusade", abandoned Omaha Platform to join Democrats.
What was the Nonpartisan League?
The NPL SMO. Methods: Candidates in both party primaries. Organizer/farmhand pairs spread word to members who could pledge with promise of voting League candidates. Successes: Huge election & legislation wins beneficial to farmers. Downfall: redbaiting (socialist background), internal splits, beatings & arrested, Independent Voters Association removed some based on their established recall mechanism!
What was the role of the Socialist Party in the early years of the American Agrarian labor movements (late 1800s-early 1900s)?
The party was the only group organizing from the bottom up, which meant farmers! They offered great organizing skills as a grassroots organization.
What is an indigenous radical?
A person who becomes radicalized, not because they're trying to get involved or organize something, but because they're trying to figure out how to solve their situation.
What was the STFU? General, methods, downfall.
The Southern Tenant Farmers Union began as an AR chapter of the Socialist Party. Methods: labor strikes. Interracial. Downfall: internal conflicts.
SMO organizing fruit & vegetable pickers on the West Coast.
SMO United Farm Workers. Leader: Cezar Chavez. Success: 1st durable farmworkers agri union. Events: 60's and 70's grape boycott = vacations, pensions, restrooms in field, clean water/hand-wash facilities, abolition of cheating labor contractors.
What is McAdam/Snow's definition of a social movement?
Characteristics: agent of change, collectivities acting outside institutional channels, organized, existing within temporal continuity. It's a movement, not just a crowd or mass migration.
Draw out Aberle's model of agents of change.
You'll have to see the chart, printed. Alternative, reformative, redemptive, transformative.
Who are the protagonists possible in a social movement?
Adherents, constituency, beneficiaries, free riders.
Who are the antagonists possible in a social movement?
Targets, countermovement actors.
Who are the 3 main types of actors possible in a social movement?
Protagonists, antagonists, bystanders.
Who are bystanders in a social movement?
Those with no stake. Potentials: Call for cessation, transformed to constituents, transformed to adherents, engender opposition.
What is a social movement's constituency?
Potential persons whom the social movement may involve. Can provide resources regardless of whether they adhere (believe).
Define conscience adherents.
Part of the SM but don't stand to benefit from the SMO's success.
Define conscience constituents.
Supports the SM but don't stand to benefit from the SMO's success.
What is redbaiting?
Labeling people or organizations as "red" (Communist).
What opposition did the STFU face?
arrests, threats, violence, planter intimidation, ordinances passed against public gatherings, evicted.
What is the Wagner Act?
It gave the right to organize unions-EXCEPT for agricultural unions.
What were some of the STFU's successes?
Media spotlight brought in money, government action such as "Commission on Farm Tenancy" and "Farm Security Administration", wages raised after 1935 cotton pickers strike.
Define a "partial theory".
A theory which takes as given certain components of a complete theory.
Define a Social Movement Sector.
An SMS includes all social movement industries regardless of which SM they're connected to.
Define a Social Movement Industry.
An SMI is a group of SMOs whose goal is the attainment of the broadest preferences of a social movement.
Define a Social Movement Organization.
An SMO is a complex of formal attempts to reach goals of an SM.
What do McCarthy & Zald say is required for resource mobilization?
Support base, strategy/tactics, relationship to larger society.
What's included in a resource mobilization support base?
Internal conscience constituents and external money, facilities, and labor. Do not have to be committed to values.
What is a social movement?
Opinions and beliefs in a population preferring change in society, represented by multiple SMOs.
What is a countermovement?
Opinions and beliefs opposed to a social movement.
What are "target goals"?
A social movement organization's preferred changes which they are working toward.
What is a classical social movement organization?
An SMO focused on beneficiary adherents.
What is a universalistic SMO?
An SMO focused on nonconstituents.
What is a Nonuniversalistic SMO?
An SMO where the constituents are the beneficiaries.
What is a professional SMO?
An SMO focused on conscience adherents.
Tell me about Cesar Chavez.
Founder UFW. Fasted during boycott. Trusted in public action, not public policy. Emphasis boycotting.
What are some recurring problems in agricultural work?
Low wages, racism, poor health & living conditions, excluded in lots of laws.
Tell the story of the braceros.
During WWII, they were legally imported to supplement work force. Used as cheap labor to replace strikers. Made illegal.
What is the UFW's motto?
"Yes, it can be done."
Key points about Delores Huerta.
UFW & Chicano civil rights movement. United public & private life, sacrificed private life.
What are "greedy institutions"?
Those which take your whole life, such as the SMO UFW for Delores Huerta.
Who was Emma Goldman?
Activist, socialist, worker & worker's rights, women's rights.
What was the social movement role of Robert Kennedy?
Supported striking farmworkers against local sherrifs.
What did the Chicano Mexican Civil Rights movement do? Leaders, events & methods.
Leader: Cesar Chavez. March from Salequin Valley to state capitol at Sacramento, 4+yr strike. Build Chicano "we", lessened fears of Grower (drama, &c.)
Who supported the growers during the Chicano Civil Rights movement?
Ronald Reagan.
CIO: who
The Committee for Industrial Organizing (~1937). Alliance of several unions; wanted one big union. Rally resulted in Memorial Day Massacre.
Tell about a special branch of the CIO.
The Women's Emergency Brigade. Helped during GM plant sit-down strike at Flint, Michigan.
Details on the GM plant strike in Flint, Michigan.
CIO (Women's Emergency Brigade aided). National Guard called in after several weeks.
KOL: what, who, strategy, demands
"The Noble & Holy Order of the Knights of Labor"
Who: all gender, race, classes. Strategies: Boycotts, strikes, sabatoge, secret rituals, self-help businesses. Demands: 8hr day, weekly pay in cash, health & safety, graduated income tax, government ownership (telegraph, phone, RR).
AFL: what, method.
American Federation of Labor. Privliged group (skilled workers) targeted (since less opposition).
What's "Homestead" all about?
Steelmill strike in Homestead, PA (~1901) by Amalgamated Association of Iron & Steel Workers. Pinkerton Militia, then state militia called in. Andrew Carnagie owned steel mills, used paternalistic strategy.
What's the paternalistic strategy?
Like Andrew Carnagie. Company town, stores, Doctor, union.
Industrial Workers of the World. More explicitly Marxist/socialist influenced; revolutionary. Militant, sit-down strike, activist v. electoral politics, sabatoge. "Wobblies".
Rank and File Movement
Answer to AFL's exclusivity. Origin of CIO.
"Committee for Industrial Organizing" (~1937).
Define "wildcat strike".
Strike that is called locally, not upon approval of national leadership, as with the CIO.
Black/Brown Lung Movement? Brown?
Coal worker's black lung disease & Cotton/textile worker's brown lung disease. Outside involvement of doctors. Cost/benefit of participation = retiree members.
modernization v. industrialization
Modernization can exist outside industrialization; broader.
Walt Rostow
5 stages of economic growth: traditional setting (limited potential),
preconditions for take-off (gov edu banks attitudes),
trust toward maturity (tech),
high mass consumptions
*Benign model that developing countries can catch up.*
World System Theory
also "Dependancy theory". Wallerstein: crucial factor world system, country's development based on location in international system. World economy: core v. semi-periphery v. periphery. Gatekeeper organizations: "We'll let you in but you have to pay these costs.
Time period of national Liberation movement in El Savador?

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