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Sociology Test 2 2


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Social Control
techniques and strategies for preventing behavior that's violating social norms
Mechanism of social control
(ex: laws, legislation, family members telling us what to do)
Informal Social Control
casual, subtle ways of dissaprovement (ex: give a pregnant lady that is drinking a dirty look)
Formal Social Control
Carried out by police and officials, may involve jail or fines
behavior that violates social norms or expectations
-affected by time, culture,place
(ex: alcoholics, wearing jeans to formal event)
behaviors that USED to be deviant
ex: women wearing pants, interracial relationships
behaviors that are NOW deviant but didn't used to be
ex: smoking, child labor
labels used to devalue members of certain social groups (ex: ex-addict, If you have ever been in Jail)
Conflict Perspective
-who are the powerful groups?
-who shapes what the social norms are?
Functionalist Perspective
- promote social unity
- look at deviance to keep our society in place
It makes sense to have a couple of people in the community labeled as deviant
Socially Constructive
EX: using "deviant" music in a classy jaguar commerical
- targets baby boomers by using formally "deviant" familiar music
Labeling Theory
Why some people are labeled as being "deviant" and others doing the same thing are not
William Chambliss **
- teenage boys
- Saints, Roughneacks
-not behavior that was "deviant" It depended on who was acting that way- race
-response to the act which makes it deviant, not the act itself
Never arrested- white rich kids
lower social class kids
Hagen **
3 dimensions: Severity, Percieved harmfulness, public agreement
Severity of social response
(Ex: Homicide- severe, Tattoo- dissaproving)
Percieved harmfulness of the act
(ex: Rape- very harmful, piercing- not very harmful)
- the perception of what is harmful changes, not the actual harmfulness
Degree of public agreement about whether or not the act should be considered deviant
(ex: marijuana- some OK, others NOT, others certain uses ok)
- is there agreement that it is deviant or just a slight deviation
Consensus Crimes
Very harmufl- high agreement- severe punishment
Conflict crimes
- deiviant acts considered illegal by state
- more contorversial definitions
Social Deviations
- widely considered deviant and somewhat harmful- subject to individual institutional penalties
(ex: plagerism)
Social Diversions
Minor acts of deviance- harmless - minor social reaction
(ex: participating in a fashion fad)
Social Network
a series of relationships linking people to other people ( ex: facebook)
- can be used to look at how disease spreads through linking people
limiting the range of interaction
making vast resources available
Patterns of exchange
Hear about jobs from other people (ex: immigrant workers)
Formal Organizations
structuref organization designed for maximum efficiancy
-part of a fromal organization
-rules and hierarchical ranking are used to achieve efficiancy
ideal type beaurocracy
-used to analyze beaurocracy
-complex,large organizations
division of labor
-produce efficiancy
(ex: UD- (admissions, grounds, president, etc.)
- gives people jobs to seperate responsibilities
Hierarchy of authority
- keep institutional order
-clarifies who's in command
NEG: lower ranks don't have much say- upper have more power
Written rules and regulations
(ex: UD has specific course requirements- written rules)
NEG: stifles you from exploring other courses
(ex: in keeping to the rules, the credit card company lost a customer)
-goal becomes fulfilling requirements rather about learning what you want
-reduced bias
-everyone treated the same way
(ex: housing on the computer)
Neg: no attachment- alienation
Employment based on Technological qualifications
- based on merit and skill, no favoritism
NEG: only speciized in that one area
- fosters Peter Principle
Peter Principle
you do so well at your job that you reach a plateau and don't do your job that well- no room for advancement
Dean Champion **
Organizational: structure, control, beahvior, change
Goal: multiplication and succession
Organizational Structure
size, complexity, and how formal the organization is (how written down and codefied it is)
Organizational control
-size of management
- bureacratization
- centralized or de-centrali.
- how are the levels of authority divided
Organizational behavior
- pos. or neg. working climate?
- effectiveness
- goals
Organizational change
- consistant level of employees?
- conflict
- willing the change/adapt?
- growth
- consistan leadership?
- use of technology
goal multiplication
takes place when an org. expands its purposes- usually when the org.'s survival is threatened
(ex: YMCA originally religious- then expanded to serve all people)
goal succession
when an org. has reached, or been denied it's goal
- has to reinvent itself
(ex: website focused on Clinton then had to move on to current issues)
socially defined positions
Ascribed status
- assigned label (usually at birth)
- you share it with other members of that "group"
(ex: race, gender, social class, disability)
Achieved status
-attained through your own efforts
- influenced by ascribed status (discrimination affects what you can do)
Master status
people see this status first and formost in making opinions about us
status symbols
material signs that inform others of your status
(ex: wearing wedding ring)
expectations for people of a certain social position or status
Role expectation
a group expectation of how a certain role should be played
ex: (cab drivers- expect they know their way around)
Role performance
the way a person actually plays a role on a day to day basis
Role conflict
demands from different roles compete with one another
(ex: work conflicts with school)
Role strain
conflictin demands within the same role
(ex: being mom & spending time with child, being mom & working to support child)
Role ambiguity
Unclear expectations about what a role involves
(ex: how can community police do their job AND be friends with the people?)
Role exit
Disengagement from a personally important role and the establishment of a new role/identity
(ex: coming out of the military and joining civilian life)
4 Stages: Doubt, Looing for different Strategies, Action, Looking for new identity
individual goes through doubt about original role
(ex: switiching careers, person begins to doubt original role)
looking for different strategies
explore options
(ex: trial separation for couple)
"departure stage"- clear turning point
Looking for new identity
taking on something new to replace the old
(ex: alcholic -> recovering alcoholic)
BITH- agents of socialization
family, school, police
social structure
way which a society is organized
social institution
organized pattern of behavior centered around basic needs
social interaction
ways which people respond to one another
Negotiated order
social structure from interactions where people defne and re-define their character
social institutions in BITH
police as govt., military as institution
-kids surrounded by violence
-teens have gender roles and live in fear
- adults- gentrification
BITH- negotiated order
- will you be an agent of change
-college scout- you can do what you set your mind to regarless of the "boundaries"
Anthony Giddens**
structure and agency working together
(ex: formalized english language- incorportaes slang)
(UD- formalized sidewalks accomodate people cutting across the grass)
the power of the human to act on the system
defining social reality
refelcts a group's power within a society
Functionalist - social structure
-sense of order
-predictable structure
- ability to interpret social situtations
conflict- social structure
-limit options
- Marx: reflects system of relationships for domination
Interactionist- social structure
-how we attach meaning to things
- how we make change
the Audience
-study at Macro and micro level
how society is affected by whats on TV
how it brings people together with common interests
the media concentration
- 3 major corp. produce all the shows we watch
ethnocentrism and the mass media
- based on US standards- dominant culture
- global level of thought
Feminist View of TV
- women shallow & obsessed with beauty
- affect younger girls body image
interactionist view of TV
-social networks that form as a result of TV(fan clubs, blogs)
- how people interact with one another over media
functionalist- media
how the media ties people together
agents of socialization
-social cohesion
-common view of culture
- TV babysitter
- bring society together- national events
Robert Park Study
1920's newspaper articles helped immigrants assimilate to culture
Healthcare and mass media
- medicine ads
- look up symptoms on internet
- health care paraphanalia
- infomercials
Surveillance function
someone else is choosing what you get to know
- collection of info. from one source- dissemination to another
Conferral of Status
how mass media provides us with a hierarchy of people
(celebs/sports figures)
Narcotizing Effect
- disfunction
- so much media consumed- become numb- unaffected
(ex: 9/11 so much media- didn't affect ppl anymore)
Conflict view- media **
divides society based on:
- racial inequalities
- gender
- ethnicity
- social class
who has the power? Dominant Ideology- stereotypes in the media
higher class, white male, executive producers provide us with the shows we watch
The Buddy movie
white male with ethnic sidekick- one-liners play into racial sterotypes
political power
struggle between political views displayed
Merton's theory fo conformity
the value put on being a certain way- means and goals
- Find certain means in order to achieve a goal
Goffman **
-discredited (visible) deviance- noticible
-discredible (invisible) deviance- less noticible
medical model
disabled viewed as chronic patients
civil rights model
those with disabilities face widespread discrimination, prejudice, and segregation
"job work"
clean several houses on a weekly bases for a flat rate
Hondagneu Sotelo
observed mexican immigrant women
Dominguez and Watkins
networks provided for low income women
-rural life
-social interaction
-urban life
- privacy
- self- interest
Hunting and Gathering
beginning of human life
- nomads- reliance on readily avalible food
more setteled
- dev. of agriculture
-limited tech.
- larger
- tech.
- more stable settlements
- increased crop yeilds
- specialization of labor
- relaince on mechanics
- sources of energy
- workplaces
- formal education
-reliance on services
- expanded middle class
-high tech.
- mass consumption of consumer goods
- cross-cultural integration
social structure depends on division of labor
mechanical solidarity
small div. of labor & collective conciousness
organic solidarity
large div. of labor & interdependance
sociocultural evolution
change & development that results from growth in their information
Mac Donaldization
- fast- food coming to dominate more and more of the world
primary group
- intimate
- cooperative
secondary group
- short duration
- impersonal
Pizza delivery men
comedian, adventurer, denier, fatalist, pro
Labor union
members who share the same skill or employer
in- group
any group to which ppl feel that they belong
a group to whih ppl feel that they do not belong
reference group
used for ppl's evaluations of themselves and other's behaviors
simplest group- 2 members
3 member groups
alliance geared toward a common goal
voluntary associations
common interest groups people participate in
classical theory
workers motivated by money
focus group
-10- 15 ppl
-discusses pre-determined topic
- moderator
human relations approach
focus on informal structure of org.
Iron law of Oligarchy
orgs. develop into bearocracies ruled by few individuals
Scientific management approach
classical theory
someone who uses fax, phone, comp, to work from home
controlling the media whihc reaches the public
opinion leader
someone who influences the opinions of others through day to day personal contacts
compliance with higher authorities in a hierarchical structure
cultural transmission
argues that criminal behavior is learned through social interaction
anomie theory of deviance
Merton's theory
differential association
- violation of rules is a result of exposure to criminal attitudes
routine activities theory
victimization increases with a convergence of offenders and targets
professional crime
day-to day occupation
organized crime
a group that regulates relations of criminals involved in illegal activities
white-collar crime
commited by affluent "respectable" ppl
victimless crime
willing exchange between adults of illegal goods
social constructionist perspective
culture contributes to the creation of deviant behavior
social-reaction approach
labeling theory
victimization survey
given to people to determine if they were a victim of crime

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