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Life Span Development Psychology


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What is the function of chromosomes
To carry hereditary traits children inherit from their parents
How many chromosomes are they
There are 46 total chromosomes
23 from the mother's ovum
23 from the father's sperm
What is a genotype
An individual's complete genetic makup, including traits in recessive genes
What is a phenotype
An individual's expressed characteristics (green eyes, red hair)
What are carriers
Traits that are in our genotype but unexpressed as a phenotype
What is a dominant-recessive trait
One gene pair is dominant and controls the trait.
The recessive gene is in the genotype but not part of the phenotype
What are polygenic traits
Produced by interaction of many traits
What 2 things must happen to have a trait become a Phenotype
2 levels of interraction must occur
1 Gene-Gene Interaction
2 Gene-Environment interaction
In a dominant-recesive pattern, what controls the trait
One gene pair is dominant and controls the trait
Recessive gene is in genotype, not part of phenotype
An example of dominant-recessive pattern is
Brown eyed father
Blue eyed mother (brown eye gene)
Hypothetically, 1 in 4 chance child will have blue eyes
3 in 4 chance children will have brown
Incomplete dominance
The phenotype is not completely controlled by the gene.
The gene does not completely control the trait
Where are X-linked genes located
On the X chromosomes
Where would a disease that is X linked be obtained from
The mother
Monozygotic twins occur when
One zygote splits and forms two identical clusters. Also known as identical twins with identical genes
Dizygotic twins occur when
Two ova are fertilized by two separate sperm around the same period
How often do Monozygotic births occur
About 1 in every 270 pregnancies
How often do Dizygotic births occur
About 1 in every 60 births
Chromosomal abnormalities are
When a baby is born with an abnormal number of chromosomes 45, 47 or more. Occurs in 1 out of 200 births
Charactistics of Down syndrome
Involves an extra chromosome on the 21st pair
Has characteristics such as thick tongue, round face, slanted eyes, short limbs, also slow to develop
Down syndrome
Is also known as trisomy 21. It is the most common chromosomal abnormality
Involves an extra chromosome on the 21st pair
Characteristics: thick tongue, round face, slanted eyes, short limbs, slow to develop
Phenylketonuria (PKU)
Involves abnormal ingestion of protein.
Occurs in 1 out 500 birhts, 1 in 100 European Americans mainly of Norwegian decent

It is caused by a recessive gene
Can be prevented through diet
Can be prenatally detected
Kleinfelter syndrome
Sufferers have an XXY chromosomal pattern
The individual has a seemingly male appearance, secondary sex characteristics are not present
Fragile X syndrome
Involves part of the X chromosome attached thinly, ready to break off.
Caused by mutated gene that contains A DNA sequence CGG that is repeated 200 times, nl is 30
What are the domains of development
The biosocial domain includes brain, body changes and influences that guide them
Cognitive, includes thought process, perceptual abilities, language mastery
Psychosocial, includes personality, emotions, interpersonal ie., family, friends
Ecological approach best solution to studying human development.
Macrosystem-Cultural values
Mesosystem-Link between each
Ecological model parts
Macrosystem-Cultural values, customs, social conditions,
Exosystem-Mass media, community, schools
Microsystem-Family, peers, classroom
Mesosystem LINK between each
A group of persons born within a few years of each other
Hereditary-Environment Debate
Also called maturation-learning debate
Focusses on answering how much of any pattern or trait is determined by genetic factors and by environmental influences
Includes range of abilities, limitations and traits ie., eye color, blood type, inherited disease.
Also intellectual, personality traits as skills with numbers, socialbility, depression
Environmental influences that happen after conception, ie., mother's health during pregnancy, all experiences ie., culture, community, family, school
Scientific method
1 Formulate research question
2 Develop hypothesis
3 Test hypothesis
4 Drawn conclusions
5 Make findings known
Naturalistic observation
When subjects are watched in their natural environment, ie., home, school
laboratory observation
Act of watching and recording what people do in certain situations
Independent variables
Controlled by the scientist, values to be used are determined prior to experiment
Major part of experiments, have at least 2 values and can refer to qualities, conditions, behaviors, traits or events
Experimental and Control group
The group exposed to the treatment or condition = Experimental
Control = Not exposed
The scientist controls what type of variable
An experimental research considers what causes
Psychological experiences
Behavioral changes
Physiological processes
To discover the reasons people change and the reason they stay the same, developmental research is conducted utilizing what two research designs
Cross-sectional research
Longitudinal research
Cross sectional research is
A research that works with groups of subjects of different ages but who are similar
Longitudinal research is
When the same group is observed for a certain length of time
Sequential research is
The use of both cross-sectional and longitudinal methods together - Also called Cross-sequential, sequential, time-sequential
Two of the most prominent aspects of ethics in research are
Informed consent-Scientist must explain
Privacy-Information from subject must be kept confidential
Deception is
Used to decrease subject bias, meaning the subject is not told they are being studied or not given the real reason for the study
Ethology is defined
As the study of the natural unfolding of animal behavior
Who was Bowlby
A human ethology researcher, who considered attachment behavior - Loss of proximity to the object of attachment produces anxiety (ex: mother-infant attachment)
What is psychoanalytic theory
Considers human development in terms of intrinsic drives and motives
Who were Vaillant and Levinson
Psychoanalytic theorists who believed human intrinsic drives and motives to be the basis for universal stages of development
Vaillant studied
Pessimistic explanatory styles of depressed people and came to the conclusion that these people blame unpleasant events to something of themselves
Freud was
Founder of psychoanalysis
According to Freud, the mind is separated by 3 levels which are
Conscious - Mental experiences that can be recalled
Preconscious - Memories and perceptions can be recalled at will
Unconscious - Bottom layer of feelings and memories cannot be recalled at will
The 3 structures of personality as defined by Freud are
The Id - Symbol of unconscious, contains inherent biological drives
The Ego - Focusses on reality principle, guides individuals to express sexual, aggressive impulses
The Superego - Contains the conscious, gives individuals extreme feelings of guilt
Psychosexual stages defined by Freud
0-1 ORAL - weaning single most important behavior
1-3 ANAL - toilet training
3-6 PHALLIC - pleasure from genitalia
7-11 LATENCY - friendship and social skills
12-Adult GENITAL - focus of pleasurable feelings
Erickson viewed unconscious and early childhood as important, his focus was
Psychosocial development
Proposed 8 developmental stages
The 8 Stages of Erickson
0-1 Trust-Mistrust
2-3 Autonomy-Shame + doubt
4-5 Initiative-Guilt
6-11 Industry-Inferiority
12-18 Identity-Role confusion
Young Adult Intimacy-Isolation
Middle Adult Generativity-Stagnation
Late Adult Integrity-Despair
Watson studied
Behaviorism - Declared that to make psychology a true sciience, the things that could be seen and measured should be studied
Pavlov was known for
Classical conditioning
His experiment involved a dog, a bell and food
Concluded that if bell sounded before hungry dog given food, dog would salivate at sound of bell
Food=Unconditional stimulus
Salivation=Unconditioned response
Bell=Conditioned stimulus
Complete Process was termed classical conditioning (aka respondent conditioning)
Most influential supporter of learning theory,
Father of operant conditioning
Types of Reinforcement
Positive-Presence of an event that increases behavior
Negative-Strenghtens a behavior by the negation of an unpleasant event
An event that decreased the likelihood of a response happening again
Positive reinforcement example
Train a dog to retrieve newspapers and giving it with a reward once object is returned
Negative reinforcement
Carrying an umbrella when you know it is going to rain
(therefore avoiding getting wet)
Law of effect, animals repeat responses but not punisshed responses
Most influential researcher for the alternative theory to operant conditioning-social learning theory.
Individuals can demonstrate learned responses from observing others
5 tiered hierarchy of needs
Belonging & love needs
Self actualization

First 4 are deficiency needs
Case & Bruner (Infants & young children)

Piaget (Cognitive dvlp theory)
Infant-Sensorimotor (senses, motor)
2-Preoperational-Think symbolically
School age-Concrete operational-Think logically
Adolescent & Adult-Formal operational-Think on many planes, hypothetically, abstractly, speculative

Postformal-5th stage-allows adults to solve real world problems
More value than Piaget on influence of social experience on cog dvlp

Language single most important means of learning

Proposed ZPD (Zone of proximal development) range of skills that can be used without assistance versus what can be obtained with help
reflexive behavior
Coughing, blinking, seeking a nipple when cheeks are touched
Nerve cells of the CNS present at birth
Nerve fibers that transmit impulses from neurons to dendrites
Nerve fibers that interconnect neurons and receive impulses transmitted from one neuron to another via their axons
Physiological states
Refers to levels of physiological arousal
Quiet sleep
When breathing is slow and regular
Active sleep
When facial muscles move and breathing is somewhat irregular with some rapid breathing
Alert wakefulness
When breathing is regular and the infant's eyes are bright
Gross motor and fine motor skills
Gross =large body movements
Fine = Small body movements
Involuntary responses to particular stimuli
Three sets of reflexes necessary for life
Other reflexes important to development not for survival
Moro-Flings arms out and back
Babinkski-Big toe will turn inward when feet stroked
Plantar-Toe flex (6 weeks of age)
Stepping-Like walking (3-6 wks)
Example of (+) correlation
Increase educational level produces increase income
Stimulus to the sensory system causes
Sensation response ie, hearing
Mental processing of sensory information ie, brain trying to make sense of sensation

Perception=Putting it all together
Least developed sense at birth
Binocular vision
Both eyes focus on same thing
About 14 wks
Newborn weight doubles within first few months of dvlp
Requires feeding 3-4 hrs around clock
Breast milk contains
More iron and Vit A and C than cow's milk
Contains antibodies against some diseases
Hormones to regulate certain functions
Infant does not get necessary nourishment needed to sustain life
Lack of protein, characterized by bloating in face, legs and abdomen
Sensorimotor stage
Cognitive development which begins in infancy
Universal among infants regardless of culture
High pitched baby talk with a simplified vocabulary, shorter sentences and low to high fluctuations
Piaged used the term to explain a mental model that an infant forms to help make sense of the characteristics of people
Fitting information into a infant's current schema
Revising infant's schema to fit new information
Object permanence
The awareness that objects exist even though they may be no longer in view

Ex: Baby will understand that when mom goes out into another room that she will eventually come back
Intermodal perception
Using more than 1 sense
Cross-modal perception
The ability to use information from one sensory modality to imagine something in another
Language mastering
Usually occurs at 4 to 5 years.
1st year 1 word
20 months = 20 words
Perceptual constancy
Awareness that size and shape are always constant despite changes in appearance due to location-occurs usually at 6 months
By 8th month, will demonstrate goal oriented behavior by looking at an object taken out of view
Reversal, allows the babies to reverse the situation
Babies use words to refer to a narrow category of objects
When babies use a word to describe everything with similar characteristics, ie dog may be used for everything with four legs
Self awareness
Occurs in late infancy, around 15 to 24 months
Unique patterns of thoughts and behaviors
Learning theory
Personality is learned, means that it is molded through reinforcement by parents
Inherent part of a person which regulate how activity, reactivity, emotionality and sociability are expressed
Seeking closeness to feel secure, ususally the mother who creates security and provides the needs for the baby to explore his/her environment
Strange situation study
Investigated attachments babies make at about 1 yr old
Securely attached-friendly to strangers
Insecurely attached avoidant-Baby did not notice when mom in room, not upset when mom leaves
Insecurely attached resistant-baby remains close to mom
Insecurely attached disoriented-baby unsure how to behave with mom
Most common problem during preschool years in developed countries
Iron deficiency
This is due to lack of meats, whole granins and dark leafy green vegetables.
Anemia 3x more prevalent in poor
Number one cause of childhood death
23% of accidental deaths
Brain development
90% of brain life size by age 6
Viewing the world from someone's own perspective.
Preschoolers most affected
Usually overcomed by preoperational stage
Ex: child in group talking loud
Standing in front of someone not aware that their view is blocked
Talking about family excluding self
Three principles oberved by preschoolers
Stable order-Numbers are said in a certain order
One-to-one-Each number is assigned only 1 number
Cardinal-The last number is the total
Semiotic function
According to Piaget, a child develops the ability to use words, gestures and signs
Preoperational and symbolic thought according to Piaget
Symbolic thought involves the ability to use words, images, and symbols to correspond to his or her surroundings
Vygotsky's theory
Students with support structure guide them have better cognitive development
Zone of Proximal Development
The difference between what a child can do on his or her own versus what can be obtained with help
Language development-Grammar
Grammar is the structure, techniques and rules used for communication.
Early childhood program which was started in 1965. Program for low SES. Results were improved achievement scores, junior high students less likely to repeat yr or go to SPED
Self concept
Is apparent throughout childhood
Initiative and Autonomy according to Erikson
Going from autonomy vs shame to initiative vs guilt, a child either develops initiative to do things on own, or feels guilty when fails, or is criticized
Gender identity and gender role according to Freud
Freud believed phallic stage occurs (3 & 7 yrs)
Oedipal complex-Boys for their mothers
Electra-Girls for their fathers
3 parenting styles
Authoritarian-Strict, sets guidelines
Permissive-No demands, guidelines extremely flexible
Authoritative-Parents who run in the middle-Listen to children's requests, make compromises
Sibling relationships
Longest and most intense due to both sex and age
Same sex, close age usually love-hate relationship
Only child
More verbal, creative, may lack social skills. However will develop social skills when involved with group
Peers and play
Important aspect in developing social skills
Unoccupied behavior
Observe but do not participate
Solitary play
Play alone, no effort to interract with others
Onlooker play
Observe, don't participate but might make comments
Parallel play
Play independently same toys are others nearby
Associated play
Play in disorganized manner
Cooperative play
Play with others in organized fashion
Functional play
Simple repetitive motions with or without toys
Constructive play
Use objects to create things
Dramatic play
Use imaginary situations to play a game
Play and lower SES children
Used more parallel and functional play than middle class
Major determining factor in child's ability to cope with divorce or separation
Impact of daycare
Social development
More self reliance
More cooperative with peers
More comfortable in new situations
Avoidant responses
Fears that are connected to certain objects or stimuli lead to avoidant responses
Are unpredictable regardless of childhood
Are acquired through identification or observation
Motor skills - Reaction time
Time needed for a person to respond to stimulus
Named infantile autism
Two primary symptoms:
1. Extreme isolation 1st, 2nd yr of life
2. Obsessive insistence on preservation of samness
Difficulty in mastering basic academic skills
No deficit in intelligence or deficit in sensory functions.
Disability in reading
Unusual difficulty in math
Putting children with special needs in with other normal children. No segragation
Children participate in a normal classroom with specialized instruction from their teacher (trained in special ed)
Meds for ADHD
Ritalin - Shorter acting
Convergent and Divergent thinkers
Convergent-responding in expected ways
Divergent-thinking in unusual ways that could be misconstrued
Selective attention
Ability to concentrate on relevant information and igone distractions
Memory storage strategies
Allow information to be stored for future use
Repeating information to be remembered
Regrouping of information to make it more memorable
Concrete operational thought
According to Piaget, this is the most important achievement in middle school
Stage marked by:
1. Recognition of logical stability of the real world
2. Objects can change, original characteristics stay the same
3. Changes can be reversed
Sternberg 3 types of intelligence
Academic-measured through IQ
Creative-shown by imagination
Practical-shown in every day actions
Howard Gardner 7 types of intelligence
1. Linguistic-language
2. Logical mathematical-analyze and solve
3. Musical-compose, play music
4. Spatial-perceive and arrange subjects in situation
5. Social understanding-functions in social settings
6. Self understanding-be self aware and independent
Bigget influence on child's self esteem
Aggression & aggressive behavior
Whenever an individual is blocked from reaching a goal.
There is a biological basis for aggression
social learning theorists feel that aggression is learned by observation or imitation
Hormonal changes are initiated by
The hypothalamus
Gonad releasing hormone (GnRH)
Produced at onset of puberty to increase activity in gonads
Growth hormone
Most important cause of the adolescent growth spurt.
Produced by pituitary
Growth in height for females and males during puberty
Females 3.5 inches
Males 4 inches
Gateway drugs
Lead to other drug use or abuse
Those include:
Sexual abuse
A time when someone engages in a sexual act without the other person's consent
Childhood sexual abuse
Any erotic act that arouses an adult but excites, confuses, or shames a child
According to Elkind adolescent egocentrism
Leads young people to focus on themselves and no one else
Invicibly fable-teens imagine life as immortal
Personal fable-life is unique, heroic, mythical
Imaginary audience-creates a fantasy..believe people are constantly thinking and evaluating their life
Kohlberg's 3 levels of moral reasoning
Respondents were asked to answer the question. "why shouldn't you steal from a store
Level 1 Preconventional
Level 2 Conventional
Level 3 Postconventional
Kohlberg's 3 levels
Level 1 Preconventional-interest lies in getting rewarded not punished
Stage 1 Unquestionable obedience
Stage 2 Taking care of one's needs first
Level 2 Conventional-interest lies in special rules
Stage 3 Good girls and nice boys
Stage 4 Law and order
Level 3 Postconventional-interest in moral principles
Stage 5 Social contact
Stage 6 Universal ethical principles
Gilligan's belief
Females give more thought to social contexts of moral choices and they focus on relationships.
Females have a morality of compassion and care and not a morality of justice and judgment
Marcia's four identity statuses
1. Achievement-a person is unique and has self definition
2. Foreclosure-acceptance of parental values
3. Identity diffusion-confusion and uncertainty
4. Moratorium-pause in identity to allow teens to explore alternatives
Most influence on adolescents
Family and friends
Peer relationships 3 groups
1. Individual friendships
2. Crowd-similar interests
3. Clique-group stays together due to attraction and interpersonal relationship
Suicide ideation
Extensive thoughts about committing suicide.
Very common in adolescent students
Schneidman belief
All suicides are preceded by behavioral, situational and verbal signs:
Drastic drop in school performance
Talk of suicide
Withdrawal from family
Running away
Attempting suicide
Between ages of 15 and 30
State of physical decline, body less strong and efficient
Inability to conceive a child after one year or more of intercourse without contraception
Factors that contribue to less sperm production
Drug abuse
Alcohol abuse
High fever
Cigarette smoking
Exposure to toxins or radiation
Drug use, abuse, addiction
Use = ingesting any drug
Abuse = used in a manner that is physically, cognitively, and /or psychosocially harmful
Addiction = dependence on drugs
Anorexia nervosa
Person limits his/her food intake to the point of possible starvation
Bulimia nervosa
Severe eating disorder: compulsive binges on food and foce to vomit or use of laxatives
Cognitive changes occuring in adulthood
Postformal approach-builds on operational thinking
Psychometric approach-analyzes factors of intelligence and examines improvement or decline
Information processing approach-storage and retrieval of information
Most predominant patterns in adult thinking
Postformal thought
Aduld reasoning that focuses on problem solving and real life concepts
Dialectical thought
Most advanced form of cognition
First stage = thesis (statement of belief)
Second stage = antithesis (statement that opposes the thesis)
Synthesis or 3rd stage of dialectical process
Occurs when both thesis and antithesis are considered at the same time, becoming the 3rd stage in the dialectical thought process
Levinson stages of adulthood
17-22 Early adult transition
18-33 Transition, cause change
22-28 First choices, love etc.
33-40 Settling down
40-45 Midlife transition, start to question
45-50 new choices made
Roger Gould
Studies stages of adulthood ages 16-60
Ranked issues of greatest importance in people's lives
Found issues involved becoming more satisfied and tolerant of oneself
Spousal abuse
Common couple violence
Outbursts of yelling, insulting, physical attacks one or both partners
Patriarchal terrorism
One partner uses a wide range of tactics to isolate, degrade and punish the other
Glass ceiling
Women and minorities can only get to a certain point
Role buffering
Each role provides a cushion for the disappointments in the other roles
Factors affecting hearing loss

Deficits start age 30 (men) 50 (women)
Incidental exercise
Work out 3 times a week or more for at least 30 min
Phase preceding menopause, believed to be as long as 10 yrs.
shorter menstrual cycles
varying ovulation
Between ages 42 and 58
Menstrual periods stop
Estrogen prod drop
Usually dated after 1 year following the last menstrual period
Fluid and crystallized intelligence
All type of learning quick and in depth
Accumulated learning, vocab, general info, knowledge of scientific formulas, all part of this process
According to Gardner there are 7 levels of intelligence
Sternberg considered multiple intelligence in 3 ways
Planning, processing, verbal, logical skills
Intellectually flexible
Ability to adapt behavior to contextual demands of a situation
Five clusters of personality termed Big 5

Also gender convergence-women become more assertive and men begin to express sadness or grief more openly
Work related issues
Non essential
Belongint to
Doing it without any reward
Self centered
Prejudice agains the aged involves categorizations and judgments based on chronological age
Slower reaction times
Due to changes in neuro system
Eye sight statistics in older adults
80% need some sort of corrective lenses
10% OK
10% significant vision problems: cataracts, glaucoma, senile macular degeneration
Biosocial domain
Brain, body changes and social influences that guide them
Cognitive domain
thought processes, perceptual abilities and languages mastery
Psychosocial domain
Personality, emotions and interpersonal relationships with family, friends and rest of society
Internal factors
Physical maturation and cognition
External factors
Context of development
Social construct
How things should be based on shared perceptions of society rather than objective reality
Sets of values, attitudes and customs shaped and maintained by people in a particular setting as a way to live or structure life together
Robert LeVine cultural context
Middle class families give less consideration to infant morality rates because their parental strageties focus on tech advances and emotional independence of their children
Earlier characteristics of children disappear while traits and qualities emerge
Case study
An intensive study of one individual, involving a deep investigation into an individual's thoughts, feelings and life events
Shortcomings of case studies
Difficulty generalizing to other individuals and inability to pinpoint exact causal factors that lead to the condition that is under scrutiny
Major disadvantage of laboratory observation
Problem of identifying the variable (any factor, condition or component of a study that can change from one individual, group or situation to another and affect behavior)
Naturalistic observation
A-Can find things not found in controlled environment

D-Results don't always predict causal relationships, to generalize results to others not easily determined
Laboratory observation major disadvantage
ID the variable such as any factor, condition or component of a study that can change from one individual, group or situation to affect behavior
Positive correlation
Negative correlation
ID whether 2 variables are related to each other

POS = Both variables increase of decrease

NEG = One increases, other decreases
Survey when used
When needing to generate a considerable amt of information about individuals about personal characteristics, life experiences, attitudes, opinions and behaviors
A prediction of the outcome of a study in order to answer research questions
To describe, predict and control relationships, research methods used are
Case study
Correlation and causation
Not same.
Experimental research
Considers causes of
Psychological experiences
Behavioral changes
Physiological processes
Sequential Research =
Many different groups, different ages
Differentiate findings with age versus time period
Turner's syndrome
Individual born with 1 sex chromosome (XO)
Characteristics: Learning disabled (math, science)
Difficulty recognizing facial emotion
Secondary sex characteristics do not develop (menstruation, breasts)
Often have webbed neck

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