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piaget on cognitive development


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cognitive development
gradual, orderly changes by which mental processes become more complex and sophisticated
mental patterns that guide behavior
orderly and lasting growth, adaptation, and change over the course of a lifetime
continuous theory of development
theory based on the belief that human development progresses smoothly and gradually from infancy to adulthood
discontinuous theories of development
theories describing human development as occurring through a fixed sequence of distinct, predictable stages governed by inborn factors
the process of adjusting schemes in response to the environment by means of assimilation and accommodation
understanding new experiences in terms of existing schemes
modifying existing schemes to fit new situations
the process of restoring balance between present understanding and new experiences
birth to 2 years
formation of concept of "object permanence" and gradual progression from reflexive behavior to goal-directed behavior
concrete operational
7 to 11 years
improvemt in ability to think logically. New abilities incl the use of operations that are reversible. Thinking is decentered, and problem solving is less restricted by egocentrism. Abstract thinking is not possible.
2 to 7 years
developmt of the ability to use symbols to represent objects in the world. Thinking remains egocentric and centered.
view of cognitive development that emphasizes the active role of learners in building their own understanding of reality
stage during which infants learn about their surroundings by their senses and motor skills
inborn, automatic responses to stimuli(e.g. eye blinking in response to bright light)
object permanence
the fact that an object exists even if it is out of sight
preoperational stage(easy)
stage at which children learn to represent things in the mind.
the concept that certain properties of an object(such as weight) remain the same regardless of changes in other properties(such as length)
paying attention to only one aspect of an object or situation
the ability to perform a mental operation and then reverse one's thinking to return to the starting point
believing that everyone views the world as you do
concrete operational stage(Easy)
stage at which children develop the capacity for logical reasoning and understanding of conservation but can use these skills only in dealing with familiar situations
inferred reality
the meaning of stimuli in the context of relevant information
arranging objects in sequential order according to one aspect, such as size, weight, or volume
a skill learned during the concrete operational stage of cognitive developmt in which individuals can mentally arrange and compare objects
class inclusion
a skill learned during the concrete operational stage of cognitive development in which individuals can think simultaneously about a whole class of objects and about relationships among its subordinate classes
formal operational stage
stage at which one can deal abstractly with hypothetical situations and can reason logically
developmentally appropriate education
instruction felt to be adapted to the current developmental status of children(rather than to their age alone)

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