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Humanities Test #2


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Florentine Camerata
The Florentine Camerata was a group of humanists, musicians, poets and intellectuals in late Renaissance Florence who gathered under the patronage of Count Giovanni de' Bardi to discuss and guide trends in the arts, especially music and drama. Unifying them was the belief that music had become corrupt, and by returning to the forms and style of the ancient Greeks, the art of music could be improved, and thereby society could be improved as well.
Baroque era opera
In these early Baroque operas, broad comedy was blended with tragic elements in a mix that jarred some educated sensibilities. The visual arts, such as painting, are employed to create the visual spectacle on the stage, which is considered an important part of the performance, in the Baroque "English opera" or Restoration spectacular even the dominant aspect of it.
An aria in music was originally any expressive melody, usually, but not always, performed by a singer. It is now used almost exclusively to describe a self contained piece for one voice usually with orchestral accompaniment. Perhaps the most common context for arias is opera.
Recitative, a form of composition often used in operas,is described as a melodic speech set to music, or a descriptive narrative song in which the music follows the words.
His work marks the transition from Renaissance to Baroque music. During his long life he produced work that can be classified in both categories, and he was one of the most significant revolutionaries that brought about the change in style. Monteverdi wrote the earliest dramatically viable opera, Orfeo, and was fortunate enough to enjoy fame during his lifetime.
In the arts, Baroque (or baroque) is both a period and the artistic style that dominated it. The Baroque style used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, literature, and music. The style started around 1600 in Rome, Italy and spread to most of Europe. The popularity and success of the "Baroque" was encouraged by the Roman Catholic Church when it decided that the drama of the Baroque artists' style could communicate religious themes in direct and emotional involvement.
In an absolute monarchy, the Monarch has power over every aspect of the state, and a constitution may be granted or withdrawn.
in a constitutional monarchy he is subject to it as well as any citizen
Louis XIV--The Sun King
Louis XIV reigned as King of France.One of France's greatest kings, he worked successfully to create an absolutist and centralized state. Louis XIV became the archetype of an absolute monarch. The phrase "L'État, c'est moi" ("I am the state") is frequently attributed to him.
Palace of Versailles
The Hall of Mirrors is a large room in the palace. It is generally considered one of the major attractions of the palace and is currently undergoing restoration. Louis XIV ordered Le Brun to paint the benefits of his government on the ceiling. The painter conceived 30 scenes, framed with stucco: the king appears as a Roman Emperor, as great administrator of his kingdom, and as victorious over foreign powers.
Cardinal Mazarin
Mazarin was an Italian politician who served as the chief minister of France from 1642, until his death in Vincennes, France. Mazarin succeeded his mentor, Cardinal Richelieu. Mazarin continued Richelieu's anti-Habsburg policy and laid the foundation for Louis XIV's expansionism.
Cardinal Richelieu
The Cardinal de Richelieu was often known by the title of the King's "Chief Minister." As a result, he is sometimes considered to be the world's first Prime Minister. He sought to consolidate royal power and crush domestic factions. By restraining the power of the nobility, he transformed France into a strongly centralised state. His chief foreign policy objective was to check the power of the Austro-Spanish Habsburg dynasty; although a Roman Catholic cardinal, he did not hesitate to make alliances with Protestant rulers in attempting to achieve this goal. His tenure was marked by the Thirty Years' War that engulfed Europe.
Glorius Revolution
The term Glorious Revolution refers to the generally popular overthrow of James II of England in 1688 by a conspiracy between some parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau. The event is sometimes referred to as the Bloodless Revolution. While his brother and predecessor, Charles II, had done the same, Charles had not been an overt Catholic like James. Matters came to a head in 1688 when James fathered a son; until then, the throne would have passed to his Protestant daughter, Mary. The prospect of a Catholic dynasty in Britain was now likely.
Thirty Years War, 1642-1715
The Thirty Years War was fought between the years 1618 and 1648, principally on the territory of today's Germany, but also involving most of the major continental powers. It occurred for a number of reasons. Although it was from its outset a religious conflict between Protestants and Catholics, the self-preservation of the Habsburg dynasty was also a central motive. A result of the war, was the enshrinement of a Germany divided among many territories, all of which, despite their membership of the Empire had de facto sovereignty. This significantly hampered the power of the Holy Roman Empire and decentralized German power. It has been speculated that this weakness was a long-term underlying cause of later militant German Romantic nationalism.
Identified with the Catholic Church's patronage of the arts and glorifying its beliefs.

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