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Micro Terms from Chapter 1


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Who invented the 1st microscope to see bacteria?
Van Leeuwenhoek
What is the Theory of Spontaneous Generation?
Tiny organisms could arise from non living material
Who disproved the Theory of Spontaneous Generation?
Louis Pasteur
What is pasteurization?
heating a liquid to 75C in order to kill majority of pathogens and bacteria that cause spoilage.
What is the Germ Theory of Disease?
A specific disease is caused by a specific bacterium. Discovered by Robert Koch.
What are the 3 requirements to prove the Germ Theory?
1) Microorganisms must be present in every case of disease
2) Organism must be grown in pure culture
3) Must produce same disease from pure culture
Who discoverd vaccine to eliminate smallpox?
Edward Jenner- used cowpox- 1st disease eliminated
Who discovered to first chemotherapy treatment?
Paul Erlich- salvarsan- used to treat syphillis
Who discovered Penicillin?
Alexander Flemming
What are some vital ativities of Microorganisms?
1) nutrient cycling between organic and inorganic
2) nitrogen fixation
3) replenish 02
4) decompose organic matter- cellulose
What are some different types of N2 fixing bacteria?
1) cyanobacteria- one of the 1st
2) azotobacter- free living bacteria (no host)
3) Rhizobia- symbiotic w/ legumes
What are some food benefits from bacteria?
1) fermented products- yogurt and cheese
2) food additives
3) enzymes
How is bacteria used in agriculture?
1) enhance plant production
2) composting
3) Biocontrol
What is bioremediation?
Cleaning up of toxic waste: organic and inorganic contaminants
What are other environmental benefits from bacteria?
1) sewage treatment
2) biofuel
3) microbial mining
What is biotechnology?
bacteria used as factories for production of useful proteins and other products
= genetic engineering
What does biotechnology provide?
vaccines (ex. hep b), offers resistance to insect and viral disease in plants, gene therapy
How is legionnaires disease contracted?
through the environment
How is toxic shock syndrome contracted?
through blood, it overstimulates immune system
How is the hantavirus pulmonary syndrome contracted?
lives in deer mice, contracted through environment through human expansion into forest
Where is cryptosporidiosis found?
protozoan found in gastrointestinal
What are the causes of the emergence of new diseases?
change in lifestyle and closer contact with animals
What are the causes of the resurgence of old diseases?
1-resistance to antibiotics
2- neglecting vaccines
3- increase individuals with weak immune systems
4- international traffic
5- chronic disease caused by bacteria
What are viruses made of?
DNA or RNA, capsid (protein coat), lipid enveloped (some)
What are prions?
protein resembles protein of nervous cells causing rare genetic diseases.
What are six important characteristics of all cells?
What is metabolism?
uptake of chemicals from environment, its transformation within cell, and elimination of wastes into environment
What is reproduction?
chemicals from environment are turned into new cells under direction of preexisting cells (virus needs host)
What is differentiation?
formation of a new cell structure such as a spore
How do cells communicate?
cells communicate primarily by means of chemicals that are released
What is quorum sensing?
bacteria send chemicals to each other to decided if there are enough to establish disease
What is the nucleoid?
site in prokaryotes where chromosome is located
What is peptidoglycan?
mesh of glycans (sugar chains) connected by side chains of peptides that create outer membrane of gram + bacteria and inner membrane of gram -; used as a target by pcn to kill bacteria
What diseases do prions cause?
encephalopathy (mad cow disease), scrabies (sheep), kuru disease and creutzfeltjacob disease (humans)

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